Assgn 1- WK2(A)

Depressive Disorders

The National Institutes of Mental Health acknowledges that depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. It is associated with significant disability, fiscal impact, and considerable personal suffering. It may have significant impact on the individual, their family, and their social network. The PMHNP must be capable of providing comprehensive care for depressive disorders, including both psychotherapy and psychopharmacologic approaches.

This week, you will become “captain of the ship” as you take full responsibility for a client with a depressive disorder. You will recommend psychopharmacologic treatment and psychotherapy, identify medical management needs and community support, and recommend follow-up plans. You will also explore how to obtain a DEA license and the responsibilities for safe prescribing and prescription monitoring.

“Captain of the Ship” – Depressive Disorder

As nurse practitioners strive to achieve full-autonomous practice across the country, it should be noted that many states grant this ability to practice independently to psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. To that end, you will be engaging in projects this semester that assume that you are practicing in a state that allows full-practice authority for NPs, meaning that the PMHNP may be the “captain of the ship” concerning caring for a patient population. The “captain of the ship” is the one who makes referrals to specialists, coordinates care for their patients/clients, and is responsible and accountable for patient/client outcomes overall. This is a decided change from a few decades ago when physicians were the “captain of the ship” and NPs played a peripheral role.

In this Assignment, you will become the “captain of the ship” as you provide treatment recommendations and identify medical management, community support resources, and follow-up plans for a client with a depression disorder.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Recommend psychopharmacologic treatments based on therapeutic endpoints

for clients with depression disorders

· Recommend psychotherapy based on therapeutic endpoints for clients with

depression disorders

· Identify medical management needs for clients with depression disorders

· Identify community support resources for clients with depression disorders

· Recommend follow-up plans for clients with depression disorders

Assignment (Project)

To prepare for this Assignment:

Select an adult or older adult client with a depressive disorder you have seen in your practicum.
In 3–4 pages, write a treatment plan for your client in which you do the following:

Describe the HPI and clinical impression for the client. Recommend psychopharmacologic treatments and describe specific and therapeutic endpoints for your psychopharmacologic agent. (This should relate to HPI and clinical impression.)
Recommend psychotherapy choices (individual, family, and group) and specific therapeutic endpoints for your choices.
Identify medical management needs, including primary care needs, specific to this client.
Identify community support resources (housing, socioeconomic needs, etc.) and community agencies that are available to assist the client. Recommend a plan for follow-up intensity and frequency and collaboration with other providers including PCP or medical provider

Tip for the Assignment

This week assignment, you will ‘captain the ship’ you are the provider and writing the diagnostic work-up and treatment plan for a patient with DEPRESSIVE DISORDER. You will develop plans for a patient that you have worked with in your practicum.

A few comments about the ‘Captain of the Ship’ assignment. The spirit of the assignment is that you are directing the client’s care, not simply writing a paper about depressive disorder. When you are the team leader, it’s important to provide authoritative direction for other providers. In your treatment plan, it’s good to outline your collaboration with client’s other providers. Later in the quarter, you will have another opportunity to complete ‘Captain of the Ship’ project.

I have attached an excellent example of a different Captain of the Ship project with this assignment and. Note that this assignment is on depressive disorder, not on Obsessive Compulsive.

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Chapter 8, “Mood Disorders” (pp. 347–386)

Gabbard, G. O. (2014). Gabbard’s treatment of psychiatric disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications.

Chapter 12, “Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders”
Chapter 14, “Pharmacological and Somatic Treatments for Major Depressive Disorder”

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

“Depressive Disorders”
o Major Depressive Disorder

o Persistent Depressive Disorder (dysthymia)

o Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

o Substance/Medication-Induced Depressive Disorder

o Depressive Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition

o Other Specified Depressive Disorder

o Unspecified Depressive Disorder

Stahl, S. M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Grieve, S. M., Korgaonkar, M. S., Koslow, S. H., Gordon, E., Williams, L. M. (2013). Widespread reductions in gray matter volume in depression. NeuroImage: Clinical, 3, 332-339. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.08.016

Lach, H. W., Chang, Y-P., & Edwards, D. (2010). Can older adults with dementia accurately report depression using brief forms? Reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36(5), 30–37. doi:10.3928/00989134-20100303-01

Steffens, D. C., McQuoid, D. R., & Potter, G. G. (2014). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment and incident dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in geriatric depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 26(12), 2029–2036. doi:10.1017/S1041610214001446

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). Drug schedules. Retrieved June 14, 2016, from https://www.dea.gov/druginfo/ds.shtml

Required Media

Hagen, B. (Producer). (n.d.-b). Managing depression [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA: Psychotherapy.net.

Optional Resources

Gabbard, G. O. (2014). Gabbard’s treatment of psychiatric disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications.

Chapter 15, “Brain Stimulation Treatments for Mood Disorders”

Ahern, E., & Semkovska, M. (2017). Cognitive functioning in the first-episode of major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 31(1), 52–72. doi:10.1037/neu0000319

Anderson, N. D., Damianakis, T., Kröger, E., Wagner, L. M., Dawson, D. R., Binns, M. A., . . . Cook, S. L. (2014). The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: A critical review and recommendations for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 140(6), 1505–1533. doi:10.1037/a0037610

Inoue, J., Hoshino, R., Nojima, H., Ishida, W., & Okamoto, N. (2016). Additional donepezil treatment for patients with geriatric depression who exhibit cognitive deficit during treatment for depression. Psychogeriatrics, 16(1), 54–61. doi:10.1111/psyg.12121

Sachs-Ericsson, N., Corsentino, E., Moxley, J., Hames, J. L., Rushing, N. C., Sawyer, K., . . . Steffens, D. C. (2013). A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning. Aging & Mental Health, 17(1), 1–11. doi:10.1080/13607863.2012.717253

Shallcross, A. J., Gross, J. J., Visvanathan, P. D., Kumar, N., Palfrey, A., Ford, B. Q., . . . Mauss, I. B. (2015). Relapse prevention in major depressive disorder: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus an active control condition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(5), 964–975. doi:10.1037/ccp0000050

Wanklyn, S. G., Pukay-Martin, N. D., Belus, J. M., St. Cyr, K., Girard, T. A., & Monson, C. M. (2016). Trauma types as differential predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and their comorbidity. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 48(4), 296–305. doi:10.1037/cbs0000056
Week 7 Assignment 1 Captain of the Ship

Obsessive Compulsive

Kamp University

Nurs 4582: PMHNP Role II

Dr. Hohn Doe

March 18, 2016

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is represented by a diverse group of symptoms that include intrusive thoughts, rituals, preoccupations, and compulsions (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). These recurring obsessions or compulsions cause severe distress to the person. An obsession is a recurrent and intrusive thought while a compulsion is a conscious, standardized, recurrent behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explore management strategies of OCD in adult clients. As the PMHNP, I will discuss a case and recommend treatment modalities, medical management, follow-up plan and collaboration in the care of a client with OCD.

History of present illness (HPI) and Clinical Impression

HPI: K. K. a 22 yo CF referred for a psychiatric evaluation by her PCP. Karen reports a complaint of “I need help, I can’t keep a job because of these rituals I have.” She reports that she cannot maintain a job because of her rituals of checking locks. Karen has recurrent thoughts that she had left the door of her apartment and car unlocked. She reports leaving work several times daily to check the locks on both her car and apartment. Additionally, because she often had the thought that she had not locked the door to the car, it was difficult for her to leave the car or apartment until she had repeatedly checked that it was secured causing her to be late for work. She has been fired several times for tardiness and poor attendance however checking the locks decreases her anxiety about security. Karen denies any medical issues and is not currently taking any medications. She also denies the use of any alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs. Reports a family history of depression in both maternal and paternal grandmothers. Karen recognizes that she is needs help and is eager to begin treatment.

Assessment: A healthy, well-groomed 22yo CF in no acute distress. A, A&Ox4, pleasant and appropriately dressed. Makes good eye contact however mood is depressed with a flat affect; recent and remoter memory are intact. Karen’s thoughts are circumstantial and preoccupied with obsessions and compulsions. Her insight and judgment are fair. Denies SI/HI/AVH.

Clinical Impression: Based on the diagnostic criteria in APA (2013), a diagnosis of OCD is made.

Psychopharmacology

If the patient’s symptoms cause a significant impairment in function or distress, treatment is recommended (Fenske and Petersen, 2015). Based on Karen’s report of losing several jobs because of tardiness and attendance, there is a significant impairment in social and home functionality. Karen also reports that her rituals cause her significant distress. The standard approach is to start treatment with an SSRI or clomipramine and then move to other pharmacological strategies if the SSRI is not effective (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). I will initiate Prozac 40mg oral daily as it is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for treatment of OCD (Stahl, 2014). I will have the patient return to clinic in week to assess for tolerability and increase to the suggested 80mg oral daily. Higher dosages have often been necessary for a beneficial effect (Stahl, 2014). I prefer to initiate with an SSRI (Prozac) as opposed to tricyclic (Clomipramine) for the less troubling adverse effects associated with Clomipramine. Karen will be informed that she might experience sleep disturbances, nausea, diarrhea, headache and anxiety which are all adverse effects of SSRIs. The desired outcome of pharmacotherapy is to reduce the patient’s intrusive thoughts that cause the compulsions that interfere with her home and work life. Well controlled studies have found that pharmacotherapy, behavior therapy, or combination of both is effective in significantly reducing the symptoms of patients with OCD (Fenske and Petersen, 2015).

Psychotherapy

Some studies indicate that behavior therapy is as effective as pharmacotherapies in OCD and some indicate that the beneficial effects are longer lasting with behavior therapy (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). Many clinicians consider behavior therapy the treatment of choice for OCD and also because it can be conducted in both outpatient and inpatient settings. With the prinicpal behavioral approaches being exposure and response prevention, patients must be committed to improvement as Karen is. Behavior therapy will be initiated the same week as pharmacotherapy. The goal of therapy is to change the client’s behavior to reduce dysfunction and to improve her quality of life. A psychotherapist will be consulted to intiate and manage therapy sessions.

Medical Management

I will consult with Karen’s PCP for updates and additional concerns. Since she has been with her PCP for more than 5 years, he has good insight into her life. We will discuss baseline labs such as CBC, CMP, TSH, hepatic panel. Since with SSRIs, nausea, headache dry mouth and diarrhea are common side effects, monitoring the patient’s electrolytes is important. I would also recommend an EKG for baseline and follow up after medication initiation as SSRIs can lengthen the OT interval in otherwise health people (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). Community resources such as the local chapter of the OCD Foundation will be provided to Karen for support services.

Follow -up Plan and Collaboration

Karen was instructed to follow up in 1 week to monitor tolerability and compliance of medicaiton and dose adjustment. Subsequently, she will return every 4 weeks for medication management. She is also instructed to begin behavior therapy the same week as medication are initiated and to follow up weekly for therapy sessions. I will consult with the therapist weekly for updates and any concerns or questions. I will reiterate and reinforce to both the PCP and therapist the importance of monitoring for suicidal ideations as the patient is taking an antidepressant and abuptly stopping will increase risk of suicide. About one-third of patients with OCD have major depressive disorder, and suicide is a risk for all patients with OCD (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014).

Conclusion

A poor prognosis is indicated by Karen yielding to rather than resisting compulsion or the need for hospitalization. A good prognosis for Karen is indicated by good home, social and occupational adjustment. The importance of an interdisciplinary team including PCP, therapist and other ancillaries will benefit the client for a better quality of life.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Fenske, N. & Petersen, K. (2015). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management. American Family Physician, 92(10): 896-903. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org.afp

/2015/1115/p896.html

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer

Stahl, S.M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

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