# big-bang-lab-activity-1

The expansion of the universe activity

This is a practical demonstration that illustrates how the universe expands.

To submit a complete activity:

• Collect the data following the experimental procedure.
• Attached a picture of your balloon that shows your name and the galaxies on the balloon
• Once you have added all the information, save this document as pdf, name it as: Name_lastname_universeassignment.pdf and submit it in CANVAS.

Background information:

The universe is getting bigger and bigger. Astronomers believe that the universe is expanding – that all points in the universe are getting farther apart all the time. It’s not that stars and galaxies are getting bigger; rather, the space between all objects is expanding with time.

In the 1920s astronomer Edwin Hubble used the red shift of the spectra of stars and by carefully observing the light from galaxies at different distances from Earth, he determined that the farther something was from Earth, the faster it seemed to be moving away. This relationship has become known as Hubble’s Law, and it’s just one piece of a bigger puzzle known as the Big Bang theory. Developed over many years and by many people, the theory states that about 15 billion years ago the universe was compressed into an infinitely small space, known as the primordial atom. It exploded in a sudden burst of energy and created a small, super dense, extremely hot universe that began to expand in all directions. Over time things cooled, and tiny bits of matter clumped together to form stars and galaxies. As a result of this explosion, all of these objects are still moving away from each other. In this experiment, you’ll create a simple model to learn how the universe expands over time.

For additional information on the experiment watch this video:

Materials

• Balloon
• Marker
• String
• Ruler or tape measure

Procedure

• Inflate your balloon until it is about 10 cm in diameter, but do not tie the end.
• Using the marker, make six dots on the balloon in widely scattered locations. Label one dot “home” and the others A-E.
• Using your tape measure (or string & ruler), determine the circumference of the balloon. Record the value for the circumference in the table as “Balloon Circumference # 1=.”
• Without letting air out of the balloon, use the string and a ruler to measure the distance from “home” to each dot. Record the distances in table # 1.” Repeat each measure 2 more times and calculate the average.
• Inflate the balloon so that its diameter is about 10 cm bigger (≈ 20 cm total). Determine the circumference of the balloon. Record the circumference in the table as “Balloon Circumference # 2=.”
• Measure the distances to each of the dots and the balloon’s circumference. Record these measurements in table # 2″. Repeat your measurements two more times and calculate the average value for each measure.
• For the last time, inflate the balloon 10 cm bigger (≈ 30 cm total).Record the circumference in the table as “Balloon Circumference # 3=.”
• Measure the distances to each of the dots and the balloon’s circumference. Record these measurements as in table #3. Repeat your measurements as before.
• Write your name on the balloon and take a picture.

Circumference # 1= _______________

Table #1

 Distance Home to A (cm) Distance Home to B (cm) Distance Home to C (cm) Distance Home to D (cm) Distance Home to E (cm) Measure Measure Repeat 1 Measure Repeat 2 Average

Circumference # 2= _______________

Table #2

 Distance Home to A (cm) Distance Home to B (cm) Distance Home to C (cm) Distance Home to D (cm) Distance Home to E (cm) Measure Measure Repeat 1 Measure Repeat 2 Average

Circumference # 3= _______________

Table #3

 Distance Home to A (cm) Distance Home to B (cm) Distance Home to C (cm) Distance Home to D (cm) Distance Home to E (cm) Measure Measure Repeat 1 Measure Repeat 2 Average

1. How did the distance from the “home” dot to each of the other galaxies change each time you inflated the balloon? (reference your data and what the data indicates)

2. Which galaxies move the greatest distance , the near “home” or those farther? (reference your data and what the data indicates)

3. If you deflate the balloon completely, simulating the beginning of the expansion of the Universe, what happen to all the galaxies? What would this point in your model represent?

4. How is your model similar to reality and how is your model different?