Describe in detail the pathophysiological process of congestive heart failure.

Jesse is a 57-year-old male who presents with gradual onset of dyspnea on exertion and fatigue. He also complains of frequent dyspepsia with nausea and occasional epigastric pain. He states that at night he has trouble breathing especially while lying on his back. This is relieved by him sitting up. His vitals are 180/110, P = 88, T = 98.0 F, R = 20. After a thorough work-up, he is diagnosed with congestive heart failure.

  1. What is the etiology of congestive heart failure?
  2. Describe in detail the pathophysiological process of congestive heart failure.
  3. Identify hallmark signs identified from the physical exam, diagnostic lab work and symptoms.
  4. Describe the pathophysiology of complications of congestive heart failure
  5. What teaching would you provide this patient to avoid heart failure symptoms?

In addition to the textbook (McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2013). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby). utilize at least one peer-reviewed, evidence based resource to develop your post.

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