1. Answer all parts of this question:
a) Describe how healthy cortical diaphyseal bone responds to forces that result in
both simple oblique and highly comminuted fractures. Include in your answer
discussion of the biomechanical properties that influence fracture configuration.
b) Describe the biochemical and cellular events of normal bone healing. Include in
your answer discussion of how biomechanical factors influence bone healing.
c) Discuss the biologic and mechanical factors that influence repair of an open,
comminuted, diaphyseal fracture of the femur in a dog. (10 marks)
2. Answer all parts of this question:
a) The ‘cascade’ or ‘waterfall’ model of coagulation has recently been questioned.
Explain the deficiencies of the cascade model and why an alternative model was
proposed. (5 marks)
b) Give a detailed description of the cell-based model of coagulation. (15 marks)
c) List the endogenous inhibitors of coagulation and the mechanisms that prevent
‘inappropriate coagulation’. (10 marks)
d) Briefly describe the role of von Willebrand’s factor (vWf) in normal coagulation.
e) For a patient with confirmed vWf deficiency, outline your preoperative and
postoperative strategies to minimise the risk of excessive haemorrhage.
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Small Animal Surgery Paper 1 Page 3 of 4
© 2015 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 208
3. Regarding chylothorax:
a) Describe the anatomy of the flow of chlye from its source at the intestine to its
entry into the systemic circulation. Include in your answer the variation between
dogs and cats, and between individual animals of the same species. (7 marks)
b) Briefly describe the pathophysiology of chylothorax in the dog and cat, including
an explanation of the changes that can occur with chronic disease. (8 marks)
c) List five (5) possible aetiologies for chylothorax in the dog. State which is the
most common. (3 marks)
d) Briefly describe the gross, cytological and biochemical features of pleural fluid
that allow a presumptive and definitive diagnosis of chylothorax. (5 marks)
e) Compare and contrast the use of recently reported diagnostic techniques that can
be used to assess the anatomy of the thoracic duct in a patient with pleural
effusion. (7 marks)
f) Discuss surgical treatment options available for treating chylothorax in dogs and
cats. Include in your answer the proposed mechanism by which each technique
may be effective. Select one (1) technique you would choose to manage this
condition. Justify your choice with reference to the recent literature. (15 marks)
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