Purpose: Examine case studies related to renal and urologic systems and fluid and electrolytes. Answer the assigned questions. This assignment should help refine your clinical/critical thinking skills.
Assignment Description: Answer the questions in the grading criteria related to each of the patients provided. Your answer must follow APA 6th edition format. Submit the answer in the assignment area of your course. This assignment is worth 50 points.
Patient 1 – A 52 year old female patient with a long-standing history of COPD and heart failure is being seen for recent onset of headache, muscle cramps, bilateral lower extremity edema, and nervousness. She also reports a 5-day history of watery diarrhea. Her medications include diuretics and long-acting and short-acting beta-2 agonists. The results of a Basic Metabolic Profile (BMP) reveal abnormally low serum sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Her anion gap is normal.
Describe the relationship of sodium and potassium in the ICF and ECF.
Identify the acid-base imbalances for which this patient is at risk and why she is at risk for them.
Define “anion gap” and the significance of the anion gap being normal in this patient.
Patient 2-You are asked to see a 20 year old woman who has white blood cells present in her urinalysis results. How would you determine whether she has cystitis or pyelonephritis?
Differentiate between cystitis and pyelonephritis. Consider history, possible presenting symptoms, and urinalysis results,.
Provide specific patient education for this patient regarding possible treatments and behaviors to prevent this condition in the future.