The series of well-stirred chemical reactors with equal volumes shown in Figure Q21.15 is to be controlled. The controlled variables are the temperature and reactant concentration in the third reactor, and the manipulated variables are the inlet concentration set point and the cooling valve v2. The chemical reaction is first-order, the rate constant has an Arrhenius relationship with temperature, and the heat of reaction is negligible. The heat exchanger dynamics are negligible. For this example, the concentration is much more important than the temperature, but both should have zero steady-state offset for a steplike disturbance. Design the loop pairings and tuning and discuss the rationale for the design.
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