2-Abused children of the school-age range face many issues in school and with peer relationships. These kids may also complain of headaches or fatigue that is not explainable. Teachers may notice and question home life when school-age kids start acting differently.
3-I’m going to surprise even myself by saying that, in this context and for the cultural reasons mentioned, that I do not feel that this is child abuse. I think that we have to look at the intent behind the action. If the action was meant to be punitive then I think that’s a different story. If the action holds some significance in their culture or is a sort of right of passage, that frames it in a different way. I think that there are many things in our culture, ways we treat our children, things we do to our children, that might be considered child abuse/neglect by those in other cultures.