Explain the relationship between theory and research.  How are they linked?

6 responses

A good response to others is not something like “I agree.” Please find something that you can analyze, add to, critique, explain, disagree with, or something. It should be a few cogent sentences. It should contain something that shows your knowledge of the subject, as well as additional materials you might bring from the web and elsewhere.

Apply theories or materials correctly. Apply relevant professional, personal, or other real-world experiences. Supports position with applicable knowledge

You should create substantial responses to your peers. Think of this as your opportunity to teach. Create substantial responses which expand on a point and present information on the topic. Your responses should demonstrate your critical thinking on the topic.

Respond to the following discussions (6X). Write how you would respond to their discussions with approximately 150 words or more each. Be thoughtful and insightful and it must demonstrate critical thinking and analysis.

Explain the relationship between theory and research.  How are they linked?  Provide at least two examples, with citations and references, to support the response. (This is the question for the following responses)

1. According to (Babbie, 2017), a theory is a “systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life”. Research is the systematic investigation of materials and sources in order to establish facts and validate or reach conclusions. The relationship between theory and research lies within their functions. Research is the method used to gather data in order to prove or support a theory. In other words, theory development relies on research, and research relies on theory. (Fawcett & Downs, 1986) describes the relationship between theory and research “as a dialect, a transaction whereby theory determines what data are to collected and research findings provide challenges to accept theory”.

When it comes to the generation of a theory, the interest will direct what researchers need to look for. For example, if a theory with the focus on the relationship between drugs use and domestic violence were to be generated, one source of data would come from domestic dispute reports. On the other hand, when the purpose is theory testing, the theory will dictate the data that is to be collected (Fawcett & Downs, 1986). For example, If a theory proposes that those who study prior to taking an exam will obtain a better score, then the data to be collected should include details relating to the amount of subjects that studied for a specific test, time that they studied, and the grade that they obtained.

2. When one speaks on theories and research they seem to connect with each other in a way that seems effortless. With theories, it is another way of saying we are created a hypothesis about whatever topic that’s being researched. Once a theory is created, then it researched to see if its any truth to the theory or not. Once ample research is made, then that theory is determined to be either reality or need to be rejected and forgotten. In order to determine whether or not a theory is legit, their are several different ways that researchers look to find out if a theory is true such as gathering data and statistics along with observing different actions depending on what they are researching.

The examples that come to mind for me is I usually have a theory as to who will or wont come to school on a regular basis at a continuation school. I felt like initially more senior will come and take school serious than juniors. after looking at grades and attendance, I noticed that it was split on my theory. Their are more juniors that attend school consistently than seniors but the seniors actually had better grades than juniors. The thing is juniors come to converse and hangout with their friends with no sense of urgency while seniors come just enough to pass all their classes so they can graduate. Another example was the exchanging of my children with their mother. My theory a month ago was she will always be late to the allocated time that was set up for pick up because the lack of urgency along with the lack of respect. Out of 12 days that we have to exchange in February, she came on time three times which was 25% of the time. I was right about that theory but was far from surprised and didn’t care to research why it habitually happened.

3. There is a very close relationship between theory and research. Theory development relies on viable research and research relies on theory. Research is a method used to gather data and information that develops a theory. When this occurs, the research generates a theory to test.

Theories have many different approaches depending on your research. According to Stephen Hawking, a scientific theory is a mathematical model that describes and codifies observations. A theory will describe some form of phenomena based on a few postulates and make definite predictions to be tested. If these predictions agree with the observation, it passes but can never be proven. The observation is always the final step in the traditional model of science. “On the other hand, if the observations disagree with the predictions, one has to discard or modify the theory” (Babbie, 2017, p.42). The traditional model of science always begins with a theory, which derive a hypothesis to be tested.

A hypothesis has a deductive and inductive method to test the theory. As we discussed the differences last week, I will not get into each method instead recap each one. The deductive method we reason toward observations and in the inductive method, we reason from observations (Babbie, 2017, p.51). The inductive and deductive methods are both valid for scientific inquiry, but people tend to pick one method they like most.

The Wheel of Science is a theory and research cycle that contains the following, but do not necessarily have a start or stop point.

Theories -> Hypotheses -> Observations -> Empirical Generalizations (Research)

The result of the Wheel of Science is a revolving circle that always has a common goal to examine all levels of social life.

For example, “Parishioners whose life situations most deprive them of satisfaction and fulfillment in the secular society turn to the church for comfort and substitute rewards” (Babbie, 2017, p.48). The hypothesis is those deprived of satisfaction in the secular society in fact more religious than those who received more satisfaction from the secular society. To test this, a questionnaire would be sent out asking certain questions. Once concluded the results in the survey can be collected and analyzed. This in turn can lead to more research, theories, hypotheses, and observations in the Wheel of Science.

Attach your proposed research topic in this discussion thread, and then answer the following questions. What ethical issues might be encountered by a researcher exploring this topic?  What political considerations should be considered when performing this type of research? (This is the question for the following responses)

INTRODUCTION

4. This homework submission contains a research plan, specifically designed for identifying and mitigating potential contaminates of the scientific method in the planned research. This research plan acknowledges that individual biasness and prejudice can skew results and present false findings and conclusions. Careful examination of the purpose of the research plan, the personalities involved in conducting the research, and independent assignment of researchers to compartmentalized portions of the study group can mitigate any real/perceived biasness/prejudice.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research paper is to explore the ethical issues and dilemmas of personal biasness and prejudice in social research. This research plan acknowledges that individual biasness and prejudice can skew results and present false findings and conclusions. Careful examination of the purpose of the research plan, the personalities involved in conducting the research, and independent assignment of researchers to compartmentalized portions of the study group can mitigate any real/perceived biasness/prejudice.

BACKGROUND: Ethical issues per Jocelyn Pollock are social questions presented by society to establish right/good and wrong/evil. Pollock defines ethical dilemmas as the choices driving behavior and actions (Pollock, 2017, p.3). In the context of social research, ethical behaviors are judged by the methodology used to collect and synthesize the raw information combined with the derived value of the information. This essay will use the most expansive definition of politics and include office politics through the political fervor in Washington D.C. Politics in an agenda often reflective of the personality, perception, and ego of the architect of that agenda. In the social research domain, politics can contaminate findings, analytical judgments, the development of hypotheses, and the communication of prevailing theories, and can distract researchers from the primary purpose of the research (Babbie, 2017, p.80).

SCOPE: The planned topic of this essay will explore the ethical issues (social questions) and behavioral choices (ethical dilemmas) facing social science researchers. The ethical issues will focus on the potential ethical problems with the study, the prudent steps to mitigate personal biasness and/or prejudice in research, as reflected below; for this paper biasness is a physical, emotional, or psychological leaning favoring and agenda while prejudice is a physical, emotional or psychological leaning against the agenda. While science is intended to be agnostic of politics and political leanings, researchers are not immune to vanity, personal belief structures, or sliding morality scales. The instrumentation of research is subject, therefore, to the individual’s ethos. The planned essay will also explore political considerations

     Ethical Issues and Dilemmas

· Is there any evidence of biasness or prejudice in the research plan?

· Does the research plan appropriately focus on the scientific method and facts?

· What are the potential ethical issues with biasness in social research?

· What are the potential ethical dilemmas with biasness in social research?

· What are the potential ethical issues with prejudice in social research?

· What are the potential ethical dilemmas with prejudice in social research?

· What proactive steps need to be taken to ensure the integrity of the research?

· What quality control mechanisms exist in the planned research procedures?

· Is anyone on the research team predisposed to judgments or a conclusion?

· What are the inductive reasoning trends in this geographical area?

 Political considerations

· What are the political considerations and implications of choosing this research topic?

· What are the political considerations and implications of the costs of research, and who is paying for the research? Do the financiers have an expected return on their investment?

· What are the political considerations and implications for the intended use of the research findings?

· Are office politics a factor in research decisions?

· Is anyone on the team overtly evangelizing their political platforms and/or beliefs?

CONCLUSION

This paper contains a risk mitigation plan for the planned research project, specifically designed to identify and mitigate potential contaminates of the scientific method. This mitigation plan acknowledges that individual biasness and prejudice will skew results and potentially present false conclusions, relegating the project and research to junk science. Careful examination of the purpose of the research plan, the personalities involved in conducting the research, and independent assignment of researchers to compartmentalized portions of the study group will mitigate any real or perceived biasness/prejudice from the research team. In addition to examining the foundation and purpose of the research plan, this paper also explores via the survey method of the research team prior to assignment to identify political considerations affecting the research project.

5. Proposed Topic: Capital Punishment as a Deterrence

 

The term “ethical” is defined as conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group (Babbie, 2017). As a researcher, you might encounter several ethical issues while exploring the topic of capital punishment as a deterrence. It’s important to identify these issues prior to beginning the study so that you can be cautious of them throughout the research process.

Before beginning the research of a specific topic, researches generally hold personal opinions about the question at hand. As for me, when it comes to capital punishment as a deterrence, I believe that it does reduce crimes that are subject to this form of sentencing. Nobody fears anything more than death itself, especially when it’s a known outcome. However, I must also be open to the possibility that my hypothesis is incorrect.

Every so often, researchers tend to focus their observations on events and situations that support their personal theory. By ignoring the rest of the data available, researchers manipulate the scientific process and the end results. This could raise ethical issues in analysis and reporting. All research needs to be performed in an unbiased way. When observations contradict expectations, they must still be noted and reported. With honesty and openness, researches serve their colleagues and scientific community best (Babbie, 2017).

According to (Babbie, 2017), with every attempt to study human behavior, politics are involved in some way, shape or form. When people feel that a particular study contradicts a regulation or legislation that they support, they can be quick to reject the study. Depending on the data collected, the topic of capital punishment as a deterrence can either support or oppose the belief that individuals hold regardless of which side of the fence they are leaning towards. In other words, scientific research can be seen as a threat to specific views and political agendas subjecting them to outside pressures and attacks. Nonetheless, scientific inquiry must exist.

6.

Topic: Racial Profiling in the Criminal Justice System

Racial profiling refers to the use of race as a key factor in police decisions to stop and interrogate citizens. The primary focus of racial profiling is on police-initiated traffic stops. There also has been numerous police studies regarding the stopping, frisking, and arresting of citizens due to racial profiling. There is also an issue regarding the checkpoints at airports. A behavior-detection program that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) had implemented in airports has caused a surge in racial profiling at checkpoints that have had numerous complaints/issues.

There has also been tension between police officers and the minority communities. The historic magnitude of racial profiling goes to its basic roots. Historically, laws and statutes motivate American Law Enforcement. Racial profiling can be, and very often is, morally problematic for various incidental reasons. Its association with racial hostility, double standards, prejudices influencing the formation of statistical beliefs about crime rates in racial groups, biased conceptions of what constitutes crime, and so on.

A researcher will encounter ethical issues based on personal beliefs, ethnicity, race, and political affiliation or agenda. You must have an open mind and not personal ties when conducting this research. The research is strictly based on studies, factual evidence, and statistics.

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