How would you present the material differently for each group?

 

***This is due in 30 hours****

Part I. Present your research proposal poster.

**Must have detailed speaker notes**

Online Students must complete an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation.

Include the following in your presentation, regardless of the course modality:

Abstract, including the research question

Prior research: literature review

Purpose

Methods

Expected conclusions

References

Format your presentation or poster consistent with APA guidelines.

Submit your assignment.

Part II.

Answer each questions using 175 words per question.

1. Identify various groups to whom you might present your research. How would you present the material differently for each group? Explain how and why you would modify the presentation for each group.

2. Identify another group to whom you might present your research. How would you present the material differently for each group? Explain how and why you would modify the presentation for each group.

Running head: research proposal 1

research proposal 8

Impact of Personality on Individuals’ Self-Esteem

LaTonya Bethune PSYCH 665 Professor Teresa Neal December 16, 2019

Impact of Personality on Individuals’ Self-Esteem

There are various definitions of self-esteem as described by different authors in the field of psychological research. It can also be defined as the general or typical feeling that an individual has about himself in a certain context and time (Heimpel et al., 2006). Andreassen et al. (2017), stated that self-esteem is an individual’s sense of worth or the level at which an individual likes or values himself. Self-esteem is individuals’ personal evaluation regarding their capabilities, importance, value, or worth (Pizzolli & Strapparava, 2019). Personality refers to the consistent set of behaviors that form a person’s distinctive character. These behaviors have emotional and cognitive patterns that have unique characteristics. An individual’s self-esteem is largely determined by their inherent personality traits, which include extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Pizzolli & Strapparava, 2019). Previous research has linked personality with self-esteem but didn’t establish the extent to which self-esteem is influenced by personality. This research seeks to establish how individual personality traits influence an individual’s self-esteem.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research is to establish the relationship between personality and self-esteem and determine the extent to which personality traits can be used to predict an individual’s level of self-esteem. The personality traits, which include extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, are usually referred to as the Big Five and are described in the five personality traits model. Each trait individually affects an individual’s self-esteem, but the most dominant traits determine an individual’s level of self-esteem.

Significance of the Study

Understanding the relationship between personality and self-esteem is important because it would enable psychologists to establish the psychological outcomes associated with various personality traits which would be helpful in the prediction of outcomes such as personality disorders, job performance, divorce, and academic achievement. Also, personality traits determine the temperament level of an individual and their overall behavioral tendencies. For example, individuals with low temperament are likely to be negative about themselves, thus, have low self-esteem. The findings of this study would enable therapists to precisely predict the patient outcomes based on their personality traits and understand the type of therapy that would suit their personality. For instance, individuals with low self-esteem may not respond to therapeutic sessions that are offered in group sessions since they cannot actively participate in that context.

Literature Review

Individuals’ personal beliefs influence their reactions to particular life situations, relationships, life events, new environments, as well as the goal they pursue in life. According to Heimpel et al. (2006), personality processes are shaped by a person’s self-esteem. Individuals with low self-esteem do not usually engage in social activities and are mostly introverted. Individuals’ personalities play a critical role in determining their self-evaluations and emotions including depression, motivation, goals, memories, attachment, narcissism, embarrassment, and shame (Lyndon et al., 2017; Tran & Rimes, 2017).

The implications of the link between self-esteem and personality influences individuals’ personality measurement. Most studies on personality use self-report scales to evaluate individuals’ self-evaluations and conceptions and are based on the assumption that individuals’ perceptions of their personality are related to what they really are. Andreassen et al. (2017) compared individuals’ use of social media to their self-esteem and found that women and people with low self-esteem were more addicted to social media usage than men and people with high self-esteem. The findings were interesting because they brought about the topic of gender in the discussion.

Research Questions

The research sought to answer the following research questions. (a) What type of relationship exists between individuals’ extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; and self-esteem? (b) To what extent do individuals’ extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, influence their self-esteem?

Research Hypothesis

           Null hypothesis (N0): There is no significant relationship that exists between individuals’ extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; and self-esteem.

Alternative hypothesis (N1): There is a significant relationship that exists between individuals’ extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; and self-esteem.

Research Methodology and Research Design 

           Research methodology refers to the process by which a researcher conducts his research. It presents the path that the researcher followed in formulating the problem, the research objective and the process of collecting data during the period of the study. The methodology and design of the study include the methods that would be used to collect data and the result of dissemination strategies. The researcher would use quantitative methods in the study. The research would adopt a correlational research design. The area of the study would be the University of Phoenix in Arizona. The researcher would collect data using structured questionnaires with closed-end questions to save time and ensure only relevant information is collected (Drake et al., 2017).

The findings of the study would largely rely on the primary data collected from the university students, but the results would be compared with the findings of previous research to point any variations or similarities. The sample of the study would be selected from a population of 1,236 students from the class of psychology and nursing at the University of Phoenix. The sample of the study would be selected through stratified random sampling, the researcher would divide the population into two strata, one stratum including male students while the other would be composed of female students. The sample would then be picked randomly from the strata. The researcher would inform the students about the purpose and objectives of the study and assure them that the information would only be used for the purposes of the research. Students would be allowed to choose whether or not they want to participate in the research. Questionnaires would be sent to the students via email and the students would be requested to fill them and post them back within forty-eight hours.

Data Analysis 

           The data collected would be analyzed statistically using the Big Five personality factor scale. The scale comprises 50 items and subscales of the five personality traits, which include extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The big five personality factor’s Scale is comprised of 50 items scale and five subscales: introversion versus extraversion, antagonism versus agreeableness, lack of direction versus conscientiousness, emotion stability versus neuroticism, openness versus closeness. The alpha coefficient is used to measure reliability. The validity of the measurements would be examined using the factor analysis method.

Ethical Considerations

Researchers are required to follow certain guidelines when conducting their research. Failure to comply with the code of ethics makes the research unreliable. First, researchers need to ensure that the welfare of the participants is maintained and participants are not subjected to any harm (“Ethical Principles”, 2017). Vulnerable human subjects should not be included in the research sample and those selected should be treated with dignity. Second, researchers should seek the full consent of participants before including them in the sample of the study. Participants should have the right to choose whether or not to participate in the study. Third, participant information should be treated with confidentiality. The researcher should ensure the anonymity of the participants of the research (“Ethical Principles”, 2017). Fourth, the researcher should be competent to conduct the research. Skills are required in communicating to participants, data analysis, as well as seeking funding. Lastly, the selected sample should be a representative sample of the population of the study. The characteristics of the sample should reflect the characteristics of the larger population.

Expected Results

The results of the study should show a positive correlation between the independent variables. There should be a significant relationship between personality traits and self-esteem. The independent variables should positively predict behavioral outcomes. Self-esteem is a subject of extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Multiple regression of the personality traits would reveal that extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are predictors of self-esteem. The mean score of boys versus that of girls should differ in most of the tests especially in extraversion and openness.

Conclusions 

           Understanding the relationship between self-esteem and personality traits is of importance to psychologists, therapists as well as counselors who need to explore the behavior of individuals in order to make appropriate treatment plans. Understanding individuals’ personality traits would enable a therapist to predict their self-esteem and improve their communication process. Individuals with low esteem should be addressed differently from those with high self-esteem. Those with high esteem are likely to be more open about their status compared to those with low esteem.

Limitations of the Study

The study will be faced with the following limitations. First, since there is no direct contact between the researcher and the participants, there is a likelihood of participants failing to post back the questionnaires or fill them carelessly. Second, the sample size is small to represent the personality traits of people in general. Lastly, as a new researcher, the lack of many years of experience in conducting researches may affect the depth and scope of the discussions, thus, the need for further with a larger sample in a different setting.

References

Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The Relationship Between Addictive Use of Social Media, Narcissism, and Self-Esteem: Findings from a Large National Survey. Addictive Behaviors64, 287-293.

Drake, B. F., Rancilio, D. M., & Stafford, J. D. (2017). Research methods. In Public Health Research Methods for Partnerships and Practice (pp. 174-187). New York, NY: Routledge.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/

Heimpel, S. A., Elliot, A. J., & Wood, J. V. (2006). Basic Personality Dispositions, Self‐Esteem, and Personal Goals: An Approach‐Avoidance Analysis. Journal of personality74(5), 1293-1320.

Lyndon, M. P., Henning, M. A., Alyami, H., Krishna, S., Zeng, I., Yu, T. C., & Hill, A. G. (2017). Burnout, Quality of Life, Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Medical Students: A Person-Oriented Approach. Perspectives on Medical Education6(2), 108-114.

Pizzolli, D., & Strapparava, C. (2019, August). Personality Traits Recognition in Literary Texts. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Storytelling (pp. 107-111).

Tran, L., & Rimes, K. A. (2017). Unhealthy Perfectionism, Negative Beliefs about Emotions, Emotional Suppression, and Depression in Students: A Mediational Analysis. Personality and Individual Differences110, 144-147.