Human Resource Management
Read and answer questions below
Owners and managers want to believe that their employees are honest, hardworking, and
have only the company’s best interests at heart. And most employees do fit that description.
There are some, however, who feel that they are entitled to an occasional box of pens or
can run off unlimited copies from the company machine. These sorts of unintentional perks
may go unnoticed by management, but they do add up. And the reality is that few companies
recognize the deep bite that employee theft—big or small—can take out of a company’s
profit margin. That is, until a major incident makes headlines or cuts into the company’s
Take a nationally known beverage retailer, for example. This Pacific Northwest business
found success with premium coffee and expanded rapidly—so rapidly that it perhaps
outgrew its internal controls. Managers no doubt kept an eye on employees to make sure
they did not pass out free beverages to their friends. But despite internal controls, in 2001
an employee created a fictitious consulting firm, submitted invoices to the beverage retailer,
and arranged for the retailer to send payments to a special post office box. In less
than a year, this employee embezzled $3.7 million, using the money to buy a collection of
automobiles, motorcycles, a yacht, real estate, three grand pianos, and a variety of other
That same year, a leading boat manufacturer filed suit against its former CFO, accusing
him of embezzling $14 million in company funds over 16 years to finance his own stock
purchases, to run three businesses, and to pay off personal credit card expenses. In 2005, a
national office supply retailer began the year by firing four employees who were believed
to have fabricated documentation for $3.3 million in invoices to the company. This fraud
was uncovered only when a vendor complained that kickbacks were being demanded and
that bills were being falsified. Fast-forward to 2009 when a mind-boggling case of
embezzlement hit a family-owned business in Milwaukee. A well-respected senior
employee was indicated for embezzling $31.5 million over a five-year period. The firm’s
credit card company, American Express, was the first to identify the unauthorized transactions
because it noticed that the employee was withdrawing large sums of company
funds to pay off her personal credit card account.
Are these isolated incidents? Not according to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners
(ACFE). In its “2010 Global Fraud Study,” the ACFE investigated fraud cases
in the United States and in over 100 other countries and reported that organizations lose
5 percent of their annual revenues (or, approximately $2.9 trillion) to fraud.
The ACFE study notes that fraud can happen at any level of a company, from the mailroom
employee to the account executive to the senior executive. While fraud is more prevalent
at lower levels, the damage is usually more substantial when high-level executives are
involved. The ACFE found that the median loss when owners/executives are involved
($723,000) was more than six times the median loss caused by managers ($200,000) and
more than nine times that involving lower-level employees ($80,000).
Despite the examples cited above, losses are not limited to major corporations. Small
businesses are often the hardest hit by employee fraud. Almost half of the fraud cases
studied by the ACFE involved small businesses, with the median loss pegged at almost
$100,000, a difficult amount for any company to lose, let alone a small business with
An effective control is to have a separation of duties whenever employees handle
money. For instance, if one employee reviews invoices and authorizes payment, then a
second employee should write and send the check, and yet another employee should reconcile
the bank statements.
In addition to a separation of duties, redundancy is also a powerful control. This means
having more than one person look at the same transaction. For example, checks should be
cosigned rather than authorized by only one person, and multiple employees should have
responsibility for overseeing specific bank accounts preventing one employee from “lapping”
or moving funds from account to account ahead of any audit so that no irregularities
Centralized processes also allow tighter control. When procurement is centralized, employees
in satellite offices are not able to buy more than needed and then resell or return
items for cash. When inventory is centralized, employees know that the company’s assets
are tracked and monitored.
Internal controls should also be used to detect fictitious vendors. In addition, processes
should be in place to verify that vendors exist, that they are performing their duties for the
company, and that payment is in line with the services provided.
While internal controls are vital, they are not the only way to detect and to discourage
employee fraud. In fact, today more fraud is found by accident than through the
strength of internal controls. However, neither tops the list of how fraud is detected.
The ACFE found that almost 40 percent of fraud is discovered through tips, the majority
of which come from employees. Customers, vendors, and anonymous callers are also
Another mechanism for controlling employee fraud is to institute careful hiring practices,
although this approach is less effective than strong internal controls or a forum for
tips. Unicru, a company that specializes in helping other companies recruit and hire employees,
has found that 70 percent of “internal shrinkage,” or theft by employees, is carried
out by people who are on the job for less than 30 days. Eliminating job candidates who
have a track record of holding prior jobs for fewer than 90 days is one way to limit exposure
Checking job applicants for criminal backgrounds makes good business sense. However
the ACFE found that only 15 percent of the fraud-committing employees had a previous
conviction. In addition, employment-screening processes may vary from country to country,
which can be challenging for large, multinational firms. Weeding out bad apples is
important, but not nearly as important as setting up internal systems to discourage fraud
before it begins.
1. How do internal controls such as separation of duties, redundancy, and centralized processes
discourage employees from committing fraudulent acts?
2. Why are some small businesses more susceptible to employee fraud and theft?
3. Given that the ACFE “2010 Global Fraud Study” reported that employee tips were
the most common way that fraudulent acts are discovered, how can an organization
encourage honest employees to report fraudulent behavior committed by co-workers,
supervisors, clients, or vendors?
4. How important is it for an organization to have a code of conduct that defines fraudulent
behavior and what happens to those individuals who commit such acts?