Identify two prescription medications more likely to be used by older people, and which will interact with AOD use.

1. Please give a formal definition of each of the following legal terms (citing your source), followed by an example of how it might apply in a situation:

a. Discrimination; The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex. E.g, “victims of racial discrimination”

Source (google definition)

b. Duty of care; A moral or legal obligation to ensure the safety or well-being of others. E.g. “employers have a duty of care to their employees”

Source (google definition)

c. Informed consent; Permission granted in full knowledge of the possible consequences, typically that which is given by a patient to a doctor for treatment with knowledge of the possible risks and benefits. E.g. “written informed consent was obtained from each patient”

Source (google definition)

d. Mandatory reporting; Mandatory reporting is a term used to describe the legislative requirement imposed on selected classes of people to report suspected cases of child abuse and neglect to government authorities. Parliaments in all Australian states and territories have enacted mandatory reporting laws of some description. E.g. Registered medical practitioners, nurses, midwives, a person registered as a teacher has to mandatory report child abuse

Source (https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/mandatory-reporting-child-abuse-and-neglect)

2. Please give a brief explanation of each of the following subjects/issues (citing your source, if quoting) followed by an example of how it might apply in a situation:

a. Code of conduct; The definition of a code of conduct is a collection of rules and regulations that include what is and is not acceptable or expected behavior. A handbook of an organization setting forth rules for behavior by members is an example of a code of conduct. E.g. google code of conduct; the code underscores the importance of speaking up and taking action against wrongdoing while complementing the scope of Google’s operations and culture. For example, one section of the code of conduct is dedicated to the company’s “Dog Policy” which the company suggests is key to its unique organizational culture.

-Concise -Well Organized

b. Code of practice; A code of practice is a set of written rules which explains how people working in a particular profession should behave. The auctioneers are violating a code of practice by dealing in stolen goods. E.g. The auctioneers are violating a code of practice by dealing in stolen goods.

Source (https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/code-of-practice)

c. Practice standards; The Practice Standards. Values and ethics. Social workers demonstrate that the values of social work are integral to their practice, they uphold their ethical responsibilities and they act appropriately when faced with ethical problems, issues and dilemmas.

Source (https://www.aasw.asn.au/practitioner-resources/practice-standards)

d. Policy frameworks; A policy framework is document that sets out a set of procedures or goals, which might be used in negotiation or decision-making to guide a more detailed set of policies, or to guide ongoing maintenance of an organization’s policies. E.g. assess then consult high level then research then draft then approve then implement and finally review.

Source (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy_framework)

e. Dignity of risk; Dignity of risk refers to a person’s right to experience all that life has to offer, such as learning a new skill or taking part in an activity that may entail some element of risk but has benefits that might include gaining greater self-esteem and independence. E.g. Elderly should be allowed to do ‘risky’ activities to improve lifestyle.
Source (https://aussiechildcarenetwork.com.au/forum/certificate-3-assignments/dignity-of-risk-7069)

f. Human rights; A right which is believed to belong to every person. E.g. “a flagrant disregard for basic human rights”.

Source (google definition)

g. Records management; Records management refers to a set of activities required for systematically controlling the creation, distribution, use, maintenance, and disposition of recorded information maintained as evidence of business activities and transactions. E.g. This organizational definition of record stems from the early theorization of archives as organic aggregations of records, that is “the written documents, drawings and printed matter, officially received or produced by an administrative body or one of its officials”.

Source (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Records_management)

h. Work health and safety. Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety(WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. E.g. facilities for the welfare of workers. information, instruction, training and supervision that is reasonably necessary to ensure that each worker is safe from injury and risks to health. a commitment to consult and co-operate with workers in all matters relating to health and safety in the workplace.

Source (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health)

3. What might be some issues around having children in the workplace?

1. Eliminate the hazard, hazardous work practice or hazardous situation;

2. Substitute or replace the hazard, hazardous work practice or hazardous situation with a less hazardous one;

3. Isolate or separate the hazard, hazardous work practice or hazardous situation from children, for example, installing barricades or gates;

4. Re-design the work area to remove the hazard or hazardous situation, e.g. modifying plant and equipment

5. Introduce safety rules

4. Define in your own words:

a. Privacy; Privacy is the right of people to conceal information about themselves that others might use to their disadvantage.

b. Confidentiality; The moral standard of classification requires that information shared by a customer with a specialist over the span of treatment isn’t imparted to others. This rule supports the remedial union, as it advances a domain of trust. There are critical special cases to privacy, in particular where it clashes with the clinician’s obligation to caution or obligation to secure. This includes instances of suicidal behavior or homicidal plans, child abuse, elder abuse and dependent adult abuse.

c. Disclosure. Disclosure is when something is made known or the fact that it is made known, e.g. any public disclosure made public would be damaging to a company.

5. Explain the difference between privacy and confidentiality.

We regularly utilize the expressions “Confidentiality and “Privacy” conversely in our regular daily existences. Be that as it may, they mean particularly extraordinary things from a lawful viewpoint. In the first place, Confidentiality alludes to individual data imparted to a lawyer, doctor, advisor, or other person that for the most part can’t be uncovered to outsiders without the express assent of the customer. Then again, Privacy alludes to the flexibility from interruption into one’s close to home issues, and individual data. While Confidentiality is a moral obligation, Privacy is a privilege established in customary law. Understanding the distinction between these two terms can save you a considerable measure of perplexity when marking contracts, building up a customer lawyer relationship, and by and large knowing your rights in a given circumstance.

6. Give an example of when disclosure would be justified, and an example of when it wouldn’t.

Information about the patient ‘belongs’ to the patient, not to the doctor: patient autonomy is paramount. Therefore, if the patient agrees to disclosure of their clinical information to a third party, this would be permissible. The third party could be a professional colleague or, indeed, any person authorized by the patient or, in the case of children, by a parent or another responsible adult. If the information between the patient and the doctor/therapist is disclosed to the public, without consent or meeting constitutional standards then it deemed as unjustified disclosure.

7. Select and consider a work role relevant to the AOD sector (e.g., counsellor).

a. When it comes to work role boundaries, what might be one responsibility for the selected role, and what might be a limitation of the role. Use examples if needed.

It can be difficult for even the most experienced AOD counselors to see through the fog and navigate their way through the maze of lies and manipulations. It’s crucial that counselors have well-established, firm professional boundaries. Many AOD counselors enter the field because of a deep desire to help others, but they must resist the urge to try to “save” their clients and allow their clients to do the work themselves.

b. Why is the responsibility and the limitation you selected, important? I.e., what could go wrong, if not observed? Use examples if needed. Services should be relevant and responsive to the individual needs of clients. They should be appropriate for the client’s gender, social circumstances, ethnic and cultural background and take into account any other problems or disabilities the person may have (for example: mental illness; intellectual, physical or sensory disability; brain injury or chronic illness). The client’s values, expectations and belief systems should be respected. The issue you might face is that the client may develop distrust with the AOD counsellor.

c. When a presenting case falls outside of your scope, what two (or more) key tasks would you do? speak to a professional that’s more experienced in manipulative and lying clients and if you still don’t feel comfortable then hand the case to another AOD counselor with more experience in that certain field.

8. We all have rights and responsibilities, which change as our role changes.

a. Give an example of both a right and a responsibility for a worker. as a worker, it is your responsibility to read the workplace and safety guidelines. Comply with all applicable OSHA and Maine safety standards. Follow all lawful employer safety and health rules and regulations.

b. Do the same for an employer. Employers must not allow workers to be discriminated against, sexually harassed or subjected to vilification by other workers, clients or management. If they do, they can be held legally liable.

c. Do the same for a client. Be treated with respect, dignity and courtesy regardless of age, disability, cultural and linguistic background, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, and religious or spiritual beliefs. Have your right to privacy and confidentiality protected, within the limits imposed by the law and the duty of care.

9. Some legislation is AOD-specific, relating wholly and solely to people with AOD issues, or with the way in which workers conduct themselves. Identify one piece of AOD-specific legislation (e.g., Severe Substance Dependence Treatment Act 2010, for the state of Victoria), and write a brief précis about what it allows to occur, or prevents, or both.

The Severe Substance Depence Treatment Act 2010 allows to a brief period of detention and treatment of clients who suffer and endure the struggles of severe substance dependence and abuse. This allows for AOD workers to provide compulsory treat of those who clients with the most severe substance dependence who are unable to make decisions regarding their substance use and personal health.

10. Select three different assessment tools that might be used when assessing someone with an AOD issue. For each selected tool, identify:

a. Type of tool (e.g., self-report questionnaire)

b. Purpose of tool (i.e., what does it measure);

c. Any components or sub-sections it may comprise;

d. Any limits to its availability.

11. What is the benefit of using a standardised tool?

Assessing people with AOD issues, you might also discover issues of a Physical, sensory, intellectual, psychiatric nature.

Standardized tools can be deemed beneficial as they are developed tools with established statistical reliability and validity through empirical evaluation. This tool requires all test subjects to answerer the same items and questions in the same consequential way that is then evaluated and scored in a standard and consistent manner. Therefore, the individuals or groups of individuals are able to be compared through relative performance.

12. For each of the above issues, give an explanation or definition, with an example of each.

a. Physical; Physical: Physical characteristics are defining traits or features about the body of the client. Examples of these include hair, clothes, eyes, skin condition, lips, or figure.

b. Sensory; Sensory: relating to sensation or the physical senses, transmitted or perceived by the senses. Example, the nerve centers with the sensory and motor nerves and the organs of sense.

c. Intellectual; and/or Intellectual; and/or: possessing or showing intellect or mental capacity, especially to a high degree. Example someone who continues to score high grades in school is an intellectual person.

d. Psychiatric nature. Psychiatric nature: the practice or science of diagnosing and treating mental disorders. Example

panic attack, frightening hallucinations, thoughts of suicide, or hearing “voices.”

13. Youth is just a stage of development, right? Identify a theory of development, name it, and its author.

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Like Freud, Erik Erikson believed in the importance of early childhood. However, Erikson believed that personality development happens over the entire course of a person’s life. In the early 1960s, Erikson proposed a theory that describes eight distinct stages of development. According to Erikson, in each stage people face new challenges, and the stage’s outcome depends on how people handle these challenges. Erikson named the stages according to these possible outcomes:

Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust

In the first year after birth, babies depend completely on adults for basic needs such as food, comfort, and warmth. If the caretakers meet these needs reliably, the babies become attached and develop a sense of security. Otherwise, they may develop a mistrustful, insecure attitude.

14. According to your selected theory how does the youthful stage differ from childhood and adulthood, emotionally and/or psychologically?

Yes Most teens ages 13 to 17 will:

· Complete puberty and the physical transition from childhood to adulthood

· Reach nearly their adult height, especially females (males continue to grow taller into their early twenties.)

· Attain cognitive maturity—the ability to make decisions based on knowledge of options and their consequences

· Continue to be influenced by peers (The power of peer pressure lessens after early adolescence.)

· Build skills to become self-sufficient

· Respond to media messages but develop increasing ability to analyze those messages

· Develop increasingly mature relationships with friends and family

· Seek increased power over their own lives

· Learn to drive, increasing their independence

· Have the capacity to develop long-lasting, mutual, and healthy relationships, if they have the foundations for this development—trust, positive past experiences, and an understanding of love

· Understand their own feelings and have the ability to analyze why they feel a certain way

· Begin to place less value on appearance and more on personality

· Understand that they are sexual and understand the options and consequences of sexual expression

· Choose to express their sexuality in ways that may or may not include shared sexual behaviors

· Recognize the components of healthy and unhealthy relationships

· Have a clear understanding of pregnancy and of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections

· Recognize the impact various media have on cultural views about sex

· Have the capacity to learn about intimate, loving, long-term relationships

· Have an understanding of their own sexual orientation (This is different than sexual behavior)

15. When considering the involvement of a youthful client’s parent/s, what are two or more issues that might need to be taken into account?

Some issues can include:

· Trust and mistrust

· Any signs of physical or emotional abuse

· Levels of communication or lack of

16. Older people have their own set of issues too. Identify two assessment tools aimed at older people which you might use with older AOD clients.

Physical examination-A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination, is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

Quality of Life -the standard of health, comfort, and happiness experienced by an individual or group.

17. How would you use each of them?

A physical examination involves the use of a clinical examiner to investigate the body of the patient for any signs of alcohol and drug abuse.

To investigate the patient’s quality of life in order to identify if the patient is suffering from depression or an emotional crisis.

18. Identify two issues which might be co-morbid with AOD issues, or at least more likely, or more severe in older people with AOD issues.

19. Identify two prescription medications more likely to be used by older people, and which will interact with AOD use.

Diazepam and benzodiazepines

20. Also identify a prescription medication that older people might be more likely to take which is addictive. In what way(s) is it more likely to be more of an issue for the older person?

OxyContin Sometimes referred to as “Hillbilly Heroin,” OxyContin lives up to its name. It’s a time-released painkiller often prescribed to those in need of major pain relief after surgery or serious injury. However, it can provide a high when injected, snorted, or crushed.

Amphetamines are often used by those who would like to stay awake longer, so you might see someone with narcolepsy taking them. These drugs cause euphoric effects similar to cocaine when taken incorrectly.

An amphetamine can cause a rush for a short period, but that often is followed by a period of exhaustion. The person taking it might also suffer from anxiety and depression after taking the drug, so the side effects can be pretty serious.

21. Identify two possible organisations who might be providing home-based supports to older people with AOD issues.

Alcohol and drug foundation & star health organisation

22. Men and women are different, right? Some studies show that there are differences in the stereotypical fe/male communication styles. Identify two or more of those differences

Men generally consume harmful substances at higher rates than women, this is true both within Australia and internationally. But while the research points to the prevalence of substance misuse disorders among women in Australia as being around half that of men, they are more likely to be socially criticized as a result of their use/misuse.

23. How might recognition of the two differences you selected change the way you communicate with male or female clients, if at all?

The differences when talking to female and male clients is that females tend to be more emotional where as men hold back their emotions, because of this you need to approach the two genders in a different manner.

24. You may well find yourself assessing a mandated rather than voluntary client, meaning that a court has ordered the assessing/counselling to take place. The client may not want to participate.

a. How do you think this could affect the information you receive from the client, and therefore the results of the assessment?

It will affect the information you gather because the patient might not be honest with you due to the fact that they were mandated by the court.

b. Do you think your client might be more, or less committed to change?

The client will be less committed to change because they have been forced by the courts.

25. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islanders might need to be considered differently. Give two or more examples of how you might need to consider doing things differently when assessing an ATSI person.

AOD use is believed to be higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples than among nonindigenous Australians for many drugs. The two main issues are because of their cultural history the Atsi community tend to mistrust authorities and the second issue is that because of their cultural history, it changed the way they act.

26. Similarly, other culturally and linguistically diverse people require consideration. Give two examples of a cultural groups, and how for each of them you might consider doing things differently when assessing them.

27. Give one example of an issue to take into consideration when assessing a forced migrant.

Our understanding of substance use among forced migrants remains limited, particularly regarding persons displaced due to disasters, development and deportation.

28. Name a risk assessment tool that would be appropriate for a client expressing suicidal ideation.

29. Name a suicide safety plan template, or an authoritative website that gives advice on how to create a safety plan.

https://www.lifeline.org.au/

30. Does the presence of mental health issues predispose a client to attempt suicide? Yes. Name three mental illness diagnoses that are linked to attempted suicide.

DEPRESSIVE ILLNESS
Many people who attempt suicide have experienced major depression or bipolar disorder.

PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS
Some may attempt suicide because they are confused and distressed by hallucinations or delusions, or to bring ‘relief’ from untreated psychotic symptoms.

BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER (BPD)
People with BPD may harm themselves or behave in a suicidal way. Some find self-harm brings temporary ‘relief’ from their distress. This is a symptom of the disorder and requires treatment from a health professional.

31. As an AOD worker, are you legally required to intervene to prevent suicide or ethically required, or both?

Yes, you are legally required and ethically required if you suspect the patient to be suicidal.

32. When might you negotiate a no-suicide contract with a client, and how? OR What might be a similar alternative process you might undertake with that client?

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