The capacity of ________The capacity of ____________ memory appears to be unlimited.____ memory appears to be unlimited.

The capacity of ________The capacity of ____________ memory appears to be unlimited.____ memory appears to be unlimited.

The “strange situation” is most strongly associated with which of the following?
a. temperament
b. moral development
c. attachment
d.egocentrism
When placed in the strange situation, Eric shows no distress at all when his mother leaves the room, and by the same token, he isn’t very excited when she returns. Overall, he doesn’t appear to be very attached to his mother, but he doesn’t resist when she picks him up to give him a kiss. Eric would most likely be classified by Mary Ainsworth as:
a. anxious-avoidant.
b. securely attached.
c. anxious-resistant.
d.resistant-avoidant.
Which of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is obtained during adolescence?
a. the postconventional stage
b. the preoperational stage
c. the concrete operational stage
d.the formal operational stage
A child is told a story about Bobby, who puts his teddy bear under his bed and then goes outside to play. While he is gone, Bobby’s mother comes in to clean his room, finds his teddy bear, and puts it in the closet. When asked where Bobby will look for his teddy bear when he returns, most 2- and 3-year-olds will say ____________ and most 4-year-olds will say ___________.
a. under the bed; under the bed as well
b. in the closet; in the closet as well
c. under the bed; in the closet
d.in the closet; under the bed
You decide to take a swim in a mountain lake after a long hike. When you first get in, the water feels extremely cold and you almost decide to get out, but after you take a few timid strokes, the water starts to feel less cold. Within a few minutes, the water merely feels refreshing and no longer feels like an ice bath. This example best illustrates the process of:
a. response cost punishment.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. habituation.
d.extinction.
Habituation has __________________ because it allows organisms to learn NOT to respond to _____________ stimuli.
a. extinction value; changing
b. strong adaptive significance; uneventful and familiar
c. a low response cost; novel
d.high secondary reinforcement value; discriminative
When Pavlov was conditioning his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, he first paired the tone with the presentation of food until the tone alone could induce salivation. In his experiments, which of the following was the unconditioned stimulus?
a. salivation in response to the food
b. the food
c. salivation in response to the tone
d.the tone
Pavlov observed that when he conditioned dogs to salivate to a particular tone, not only would they salivate to this tone but also to other similar tones. This phenomenon is known as:
a. negative reinforcement.
b. stimulus discrimination.
c. shaping.
d.stimulus generalization.
In classical conditioning, discrimination refers to how a(n):
a. CR can be triggered by many different stimuli.
b. CR is triggered by one stimulus but not by others.
c. CR can fade when a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS.
d.UCS can become a CS.
A researcher in a classical conditioning experiment first conditions a dog to salivate in response to the presentation of a red circle. After this response has been established, she presents a light immediately before she displays the circle and after several trials, the light comes to trigger the salivation response. This example best demonstrates the process of:
a. preparedness.
b. stimulus generalization.
c. backward pairing of the CS and UCS.


 

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