With CourseSmart, students can highlight text, take and organize notes, and share those notes with other Course Smart users. Curious?

With Course Smart, students can highlight text, take and organize notes, and share those notes with other Course Smart users. Curious?

The Twelfth Edition of Business Research Methods reflects a thoughtful revision of a market standard. Students and professors will find thorough, current coverage of all business research topics presented with a balance of theory and practical application. Authors Donald Cooper and Pamela Schindler use managerial decision-making as the theme of Business Research Methods and they provide the content and structure to ensure students’ grasp of the business research function. This textbook also encourages and supports the completion of an in-depth business research project, if desired, by the professor.

Features of the Twelfth Edition include: The MindWriter continuing case study has been updated to focus on online survey methodology with Appendix A including a newly redesigned MindWriter CompleteCare online survey.

New and revised Snapshots and PicProfiles provide 82 timely mini-cases presented from a researcher’s perspective, with additional mini-cases added to the accompanying instructor’s manual.

New and revised Closeups offer in-depth examination of key examples.

All new From the Headlines discussion questions.

The Cases section contains the abstract for the new case: Marcus Thomas LLC Tests Hypothesis for Troy-Bilt Creative Development, and an updated case-by-chapter suggested-use chart.

Some textbook content has been moved to the Online Learning Center, and includes the Multivariate Analysis chapter, and several end-of-chapter appendices.

For more information, and to learn more about the teaching and study resources available to you, visit the Online Learning Center: www.mhhe.com/cooper12e

CourseSmart enables access to a printable e-book from any computer that has Internet service without plug-ins or special

software. With CourseSmart, students can highlight text, take and organize notes, and share those notes with other CourseSmart users. Curious? Go to www.coursesmart.com to try one chapter of the e-book, free of charge, before purchase.















#1221015 12/17/12 C Y










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The McGraw-Hill/Irwin Series in Operations and Decision Sciences


Benton Purchasing and Supply Chain Management Second Edition

Burt, Petcavage, and Pinkerton Supply Management Eighth Edition

Bowersox, Closs, Cooper, and Bowersox Supply Chain Logistics Management Fourth Edition

Johnson, Leenders, and Flynn Purchasing and Supply Management Fourteenth Edition

Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky, and Simchi-Levi Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies, Case Studies Third Edition


Brown and Hyer Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach First Edition

Larson and Gray Project Management: The Managerial Process Fifth Edition


Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons Service Management: Operations, Strategy, Information Technology Eighth Edition


Hillier and Hillier Introduction to Management Science: A Modeling and Case Studies Approach with Spreadsheets Fifth Edition

Stevenson and Ozgur Introduction to Management Science with Spreadsheets First Edition


Jacobs, Berry, Whybark, and Vollmann Manufacturing Planning & Control for Supply Chain Management Sixth Edition


Cooper-Schindler Business Research Methods Twelfth Edition


Wilson, Keating, and John Galt Solutions, Inc. Business Forecasting Sixth Edition


Kutner, Nachtsheim, and Neter Applied Linear Regression Models Fourth Edition


Sterman Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World First Edition


Cachon and Terwiesch Matching Supply with Demand: An Introduction to Operations Management Third Edition

Finch Interactive Models for Operations and Supply Chain Management First Edition

Jacobs and Chase Operations and Supply Chain Management: The Core Third Edition

Jacobs and Chase Operations and Supply Chain Management Fourteenth Edition

Jacobs and Whybark Why ERP? A Primer on SAP Implementation First Edition

Schroeder, Goldstein, and Rungtusanatham Operations Management in the Supply Chain: Decisions and Cases Sixth Edition

Stevenson Operations Management Eleventh Edition

Swink, Melnyk, Cooper, and Hartley Managing Operations across the Supply Chain First Edition


Ulrich and Eppinger Product Design and Development Fifth Edition


Slater and Wittry Practical Business Math Procedures Eleventh Edition

Slater and Wittry Practical Business Math Procedures, Brief Edition Eleventh Edition

Slater and Wittry Math for Business and Finance: An Algebraic Approach First Edition


Bowerman, O’Connell, Murphree, and Orris Essentials of Business Statistics Fourth Edition

Bowerman, O’Connell, and Murphree Business Statistics in Practice Sixth Edition

Doane and Seward Applied Statistics in Business and Economics Fourth Edition

Lind, Marchal, and Wathen Basic Statistics for Business and Economics Eighth Edition

Lind, Marchal, and Wathen Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics Fifteenth Edition

Jaggia and Kelly Business Statistics: Communicating with Numbers First Edition

* Available only through McGraw-Hill’s PRIMIS Online Assets Library.

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Donald R. Cooper Florida Atlantic University

Pamela S. Schindler Wittenberg University


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Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011, 2008, and 2006. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

ISBN 978-0-07-352150-3 MHID 0-07-352150-7

Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L. Strand Vice President, Content Production & Technology Services: Kimberly Meriwether David Managing Director: Douglas Reiner Senior Brand Manager: Thomas Hayward Marketing Manager: Heather Kazakoff Managing Development Editor: Christina Kouvelis Freelance Development Editor: Jane Ducham Director, Content Production: Terri Schiesl Content Project Manager: Mary Jane Lampe Buyer: Nichole Birkenholz Photo Researcher: Danny Meldung Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, MO Cover Image: © Pamela S. Schindler Media Project Manager: Prashnathi Nadiapalli Typeface: 10/12 Times Compositor: MPS Limited Printer: R. R. Donnelley

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cooper, Donald R. Business research methods / Donald R. Cooper, Florida Atlantic University, Pamela S. Schindler, Wittenberg University.—Twelfth edition.

pages cm.—(The McGraw-Hill/Irwin series in operations and decision sciences business statistics) ISBN 978-0-07-352150-3 (alk. paper) 1. Industrial management—Research. I. Schindler, Pamela S. II. Title. HD30.4.E47 2014 658.0072—dc23


The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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To Kelli Cooper, my wife, for her love and support.

Donald R. Cooper

To my soulmate and husband, Bill, for his unwavering support and sage advice.

Pamela S. Schindler

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walkthrough Bringing Research to Life reveals research in the trenches. Much of research activity isn’t obvious or visible. These opening vignettes are designed to take the student

behind the door marked RESEARCH. Through the activities of the principals at Henry & Associates, students

learn about research projects, many that were revealed to the authors off the record . The characters and names

of companies are fi ctional, but the research activities they describe are real–and happening behind the scenes in

hundreds of fi rms every day.

Learning Objectives serve as memory flags. Learning objectives serve as a road map as stu dents

start their journey into the chapter. Read fi rst, these

objectives subconsciously encourage students to

seek relevant material, defi nitions, and exhibits.

Jason Henry and Sara Arens, partners in Henry & Associates, are just wrapping up a Web- based briefi ng on the MindWriter project. Jason and Sara are in Boca Raton, Florida. Myra Wines, MindWriter’s director of consumer affairs is participating from Atlanta, as are others, including Jean-Claude Malraison, MindWriter’s general manager, who joined from Delhi, India, and Gracie Uhura, MindWriter’s marketing manager, and her staff, who joined from a conference room in their Austin, Texas, facility.


“Based on the poll results that are on your screen, you

have reached a strong consensus on your fi rst priority.

The research strongly supports that you should be

negotiating stronger courier contracts to address the

in-transit damage issues. Congratulations,” concluded


“That wraps up our briefi ng, today. Sara and I are

happy to respond to any e-mail questions any of you

might have after reading the summary report that has

been delivered to your e-mail. Our e-mail address is on

screen, and it is also on the cover of the report. Myra,

I’m handing control of the meeting back to you.”

As Myra started to conclude the meeting, Sara was

holding up a sign in front of Jason that read. “Turn off

your microphone.” Jason gave a thumbs-up sign and

clicked off his mic.

“Thank you, Jason,” stated Myra. “The research

has clarifi ed some critical issues for us and you have

helped us focus on some probable solutions. This

concludes the meeting. I’ll be following up soon with

an e-mail that contains a link to the recorded archive

of this presentation, allowing you to share it with your

staff. You will also be asked to participate in a brief

survey when you close the Web-presentation window.

I’d really appreciate your taking the three minutes it

will take to complete the survey. Thank you all for


As soon as the audience audio was disconnected,

Myra indicated, “That went well, Jason. The use of

the Q&A tool to obtain their pre-report ideas for action

was a stroke of genius. When you posted the results as

a poll and had them indicate their fi rst priority, they

were all over the board. It helped them understand that

one purpose of the research and today’s meeting was to

bring them all together.”

“Sara gets the credit for that stroke of genius,”

claimed Jason after removing his microphone and

clicking on his speakerphone. “She is a strong

proponent of interaction in our briefi ngs. And she

continually invents new ways to get people involved

and keep them engaged.”

“Kudos, Sara,” exclaimed Myra. “Who gets the

credit for simplifying the monthly comparison chart?”

“Those honors actually go to our intern, Sammye

Grayson,” shared Sara. “I told her while it was a

suitable graph for the written report; it was much too

complex a visual for the presentation. She did a great

job. I’ll pass on your praise.”

“Well,” asked Myra, “where do we go from here?”

“Jason and I will fi eld any questions for the next

week from you or your staff,” explained Sara. “Then

we will consider this project complete—until you

contact us again.”

“About that,” Myra paused, “I’ve just received an

e-mail from Jean-Claude. He wants to meet with you

both about a new project he has in mind. He asks if he

could pick you up at the Boca airport on Friday, about

2:30 p.m. He says his fl ying offi ce will have you back

in time for an early dinner.”

Sara consulted her iPhone and indicated she was

available. Jason looked at his own calendar and smiled

across the desk at Sara. “Tell Jean-Claude we’ll meet

him at the airport. Any idea what this new project is


“Not a clue!”


After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


1 What issues are covered in research ethics.

2 The goal of “no harm” for all research activities and what constitutes “no harm” for participant, researcher, and research sponsor.

3 The differing ethical dilemmas and responsibilities of researchers, sponsors, and research assistants.

4 The role of ethical codes of conduct in professional associations.

Ethics in Business Research

>chapter 2

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Special tools for today’s visual learner. A transformation is taking place in many of our classrooms. During the last decade, more and more of our

students have become visual—not verbal—learners. Verbal learners learn primarily from reading text. Visual

learners need pictures, diagrams, and graphs to clarify and reinforce what the text relates.

Integrated research process exhibits reveal a rich and complex process in an understandable way.

Every textbook has exhibits. We use these tables and line

drawings to bring key concepts to life and make complex

concepts more understandable.

Within our array of exhibits is a very special series of

32 fully integrated research process exhibits. Each

exhibit in this series shares symbols, shapes, and colors

with others in the series.

Exhibit 1-3 is the overview exhibit of the research

process, to which all other exhibits related to the process

will link.

Research Proposal

Discover the Management Dilemma

Define the Management Question

Define the Research Question(s)

Refine the Research Question(s)

(type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment)

Research Reporting


Data Analysis & Interpretation

Research Design Strategy

Clarifying the Research Question

Management Decision

Data Collection & Preparation

Data Collection Design

Sampling Design

Instrument Development & Pilot Testing

Chapters 2–5

Chapters 6–14

Chapter 15

Chapters 16–18

Chapters 19–20

Appendix A

>Exhibit 1-4 The Research Process

Subsequent exhibits (like this one for survey design)

show more detail in a part of this process.

Another exhibit in the series might layer the main process

exhibit with additional information (like this exhibit from

the ethics chapter).

>Exhibit 13-5 Flowchart for Instrument Design: Phase 2

Pretest Individual Questions

Measurement Questions

Interview Conditions

Interview Location

Interviewer ID

Participant ID





Topic D

Topic C

Topic B

Topic A

Administrative Questions

Target Questions

Classification Questions

Instrument Development

• Sponsor’s right to quality research • Sponsor’s right of purpose nondisclosure • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor coercion • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor deception

• Sponsor’s right to quality research

• Participant’s right of informed consent • Participant’s right to privacy (refusal) • Sponsor’s right to quality research • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor coercion

• Participant’s right to privacy • Participant deception • Sponsor’s right to sponsor nondisclosure • Researcher’s right to safety

• Sponsor’s right to findings nondisclosure • Participant’s right to confidentiality • Sponsor’s right to quality research • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor coercion

• Participant deception • Sponsor’s right to quality research

• Sponsor nondisclosure

Research Proposal

Discover the Management Dilemma

Define the Management Question

Define the Research Question(s)

Refine the Research Question(s)

(type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment)

Research Reporting


Data Analysis & Interpretation

Research Design Strategy

Management Decision

Data Collection & Preparation

Data Collection Design

Sampling Design

Instrument Development

Clarifying the Research Question

>Exhibit 2-1 Ethical Issues and the Research Process

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Some topics deserve more attention—with their own chapter!

An emphasis on presentation. Increasingly, researchers are making oral presentations of

their fi ndings though Web-driven technologies. We address

this and other oral presentation formats and issues with a

separate chapter.

All researchers increasingly need qualitative skills. Researchers increasingly admit that quantitative research

can’t reveal all they need to know to make smart business

decisions. We capture the best of the current qualitative

methods and reveal where and how they are used.

Help in moving from management dilemma to research design. This is where talented people can steer research in the

wrong or right direction. We devote a chapter to

providing students with a methodology for making the

right decisions more often.

Ethical issues get the attention they deserve. Ethical issues abound in business research but may

go unnoticed by students who need a framework to

discuss and understand these issues. We devote a

chapter to building that framework.

Presenting Insights and Findings: Oral Presentations

1 How the oral research presentation differs from and is similar to traditional public speaking.

2 Why historical rhetorical theory has practical infl uence on business presentation skills in the 21st century.

3 How to plan for the research presentation.

4 The frameworks and patterns of organizing a presentation.

5 The uses and differences between the types of materials designed to support your points.

6 How profi ciency in research presentations requires designing good visuals and knowing how to use them effectively.

7 The importance of delivery to getting and holding the audience’s attention.

8 Why practice is an essential ingredient to success and how to do it; and, what needs to be assembled and checked to be certain that arrangements for the occasion and venue are ready.

After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


>chapter 20

Listeners have one chance to hear your talk and can’t “re-read” when they get confused. In many situations, they have or will hear several talks on the same day. Being clear is particularly important if the audience can’t ask questions during the talk.

Mark D. Hill,

professor of computer sciences and electrical and computer engineering,

University of Wisconsin-Madison

After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


1 How qualitative methods differ from quantitative methods.

2 The controversy surrounding qualitative research.

3 The types of decisions that use qualitative methods.

4 The variety of qualitative research methods.

Sometimes people are layered. There’s something totally different underneath than what’s on the surface . . . like pie.

Joss Whedon, author and screenwriter

“ ”

Qualitative Research

>chapter 7

It is critical to use serious business judgment about what types of information could possibly be useful and actionable for an organization. We have seen enormous resources expended on “data projects” that have no realistic chance of payoff. Indiscriminately boiling a data ocean seldom produces a breakthrough nugget.

Blaise Heltai, general partner,

NewVantage Partners

After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .

> learningobjectives

1 The purposes and process of exploratory research.

2 Two types and three levels of management decision-related secondary sources.

3 Five types of external information and the fi ve critical factors for evaluating the value of a source and its content.

4 The process of using exploratory research to understand the management dilemma and work through the stages of analysis necessary to formulate the research question (and, ultimately, investigative questions and measurement questions).

5 What is involved in internal data mining and how internal data-mining techniques differ from literature searches.

Clarifying the Research Question through Secondary Data and Exploration

>chapter 5

After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


1 What issues are covered in research ethics.

2 The goal of “no harm” for all research activities and what constitutes “no harm” for participant, researcher, and research sponsor.

3 The differing ethical dilemmas and responsibilities of researchers, sponsors, and research assistants.

4 The role of ethical codes of conduct in professional associations.

Ethics in Business Research

>chapter 2

“Today, it would be remiss to say that the privacy profession is anything but fl ourishing. Companies are increasingly hiring privacy offi cers and even elevating them to C-suite positions; the European Commission has proposed a statute in its amended data protection framework that would require data protection offi cers at certain organizations, and at the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) membership recently hit 10,000 worldwide .

Angelique Carson, CIPP/US,

International Association of Privacy Professionals ”

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Students learn by and deserve the best examples.

Snapshots are research examples from the researcher’s perspective. Snapshots are like mini-cases: They help a

student understand a concept in the text by

giving a current example. As mini-cases

they are perfect for lively class discussion.

Each one focuses on a particular application of

the research process as it applies to a particular

fi rm and project. You’ll fi nd more than

82 of these timely research examples

throughout the text and more in the Instructor’s


Web addresses speed secondary data searches

on companies involved with the example. be asked of participants. Four questions, covering numerous issues, guide the instrument designer in selecting appropriate question content:

• Should this question be asked (does it match the study objective)?

• Is the question of proper scope and coverage?

• Can the participant adequately answer this question as asked?

• Will the participant willingly answer this question as asked?

The Challenges and Solutions to Mobile Questionnaire Design


“As researchers, we need to be sensitive to the unique chal-

lenges respondents face when completing surveys on mo-

bile devices,” shared Kristin Luck, CEO of Decipher. “Small

screens, infl exible device-specifi c user input methods, and

potentially slow data transfer speeds all combine to make

the survey completion process more diffi cult than on a typi-

cal computer. Couple those hindrances with reduced atten-

tion spans and a lower frustration threshold and it’s clear that,

as researchers, we must be proactive in the design of both

the questionnaire and user-interface in order to accommodate

mobile respondents and provide them with an excellent survey


Decipher researchers follow key guidelines when designing

surveys for mobile devices like smart phones and tablets.

• Ask 10 or fewer questions

• Minimize page refreshes—longer wait times reduce


• Ask few questions per page—many mobile devices

have limited memory.

• Use simple question modes—to minimize scrolling

• Keep question and answer text short—due to smaller


• If unavoidable, limit scrolling to one dimension (vertical

is better than horizontal).

• Use single-response or multiple-response radio button

or checkbox questions rather than multidimension grid


• Limit open-end questions—to minimize typing.

• Keep answer options to a short list.

• For necessary longer answer-list options, use drop-

down box (but limit these as they require more clicks to


• Minimize all non-essential content

• If used, limit logos to the fi rst or last survey page.

• Limit privacy policy to fi rst or last survey page.



10 of 24


• Debate use of progress bar—it may encourage

completion but also may require scrolling.

• Minimize distraction

• Use simple, high-contrast color schemes—phones

have limited color palettes.

• Minimize JavaScript due to bandwidth concerns.

• Eliminate Flash on surveys—due to incompatibility with


Luck is passionate about making sure that researchers recog-

nize the special requirements of designing for mobile as mobile

surveys grow in use and projected use, S shares her expertise at

conferences worldwide. www.decipherinc.com

Icons help students link parts of a richer, more complex example, told over a series of chapters.

Some examples are so rich in detail that one Snapshot or exhibit just isn’t suffi cient. MindWriter is a

computer laptop manufacturer that prides itself on customer service, especially when it comes to laptop

repair at its CompleteCare center. Each time you see this icon in the text, you’ll be learning more about the

customer satisfaction research that Henry & Associates is doing.


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The Closeup offers a more in-depth examination of a key example. Sometimes you just need more time and space to showcase all the detail of an example. This glimpse

of the Closeup from Chapter 16 reveals two pages from a discussion on tabular data.

Using Tables to Understand Data


Because the researcher’s primary job is to discover the mes-

sage revealed by the data, he or she needs every tool to reveal

the message. Authors Sally Bigwood and Melissa Spore in their

book Presenting Numbers, Tables, and Charts suggest that the

table is the ultimate tool for extracting knowledge from data.

The presence of any number within a table is for comparison

with a similar number—from last year, from another candidate,

from another machine, against a goal, and so forth. Using the

author’s rules for table creation, a researcher exploring data by

constructing a table should:

• Round numbers. • Rounded numbers can be most easily compared, enabling us to more easily determine the ratio or relationship of one number to another.

• If precision is critical to the number (e.g., you are researching taxes or design specifi cations or drug interactions), don’t round the numbers.

• Arrange the num- bers to reveal patterns.

• Order numbers from largest to smallest number. • In a vertically arranged table, order the largest number at the top. • In a horizontal arrangement, order the largest numbers on the left.

• When looking for changes over time, order the numbers by year, from most distant (left or top) to most recent.

• Use aver- ages, totals, or percentages to achieve focus.

• An average provides a point for comparison. • Don’t use an average if the raw data reveal a bimodal distribution.

• Totals emphasize the big picture.

• Percentages show proportionate relationships more easily than raw data.

• Compare like scales in a single table.

• Convert numbers to a common scale when the numbers refl ect different scales (e.g., grams versus ounces of cereal consumption; monthly salary data versus hourly wage data).

• Choose simplicity over complexity.

• Several smaller tables reveal patterns better rather than one large, complex table.

• Complex tables are used as a convenient reference source for multiple elements of data.

• Use empty space and design to guide the eye to numbers that must be com- pared and to make patterns and excep- tions stand out.

• Design a table with a smaller number of columns than rows.

• Single-space numbers that must be compared.

• Use gridlines to group numbers within a table; avoid gridlines between numbers that must be compared.

• Use empty space to create gutters between numbers in simple tables.

• Right-align column headers and table numbers.

• Summarize each data display.

• Write a phrase or sentence that summarizes your interpretation of the data presented; don’t leave interpretation to chance. • Summary statements might be used as the title of a table or chart in the fi nal research report. • The summary need not mention any numbers.

• Label and title tables for clarity of message.

• Titles should be comprehensive: Include what (subject of the title or message), where (if data have a geographic base), when (date or time period covered), and unit of measure.

• Include common information in the title: It lengthens a title but shortens the table’s column headings.

• Avoid abbreviations in column headings unless well known by your audience.

• Avoid footnotes; if used, use symbols—like the asterisk—rather than numbers (numbers used as footnotes can be confused with the content numbers of the table).

• For reference, provide an undertable source line for later reference.

PicProfile offers a memory visual to enhance an example. In research, as in life, sometimes a picture is worth

more than words. Sometimes you need to see what

is being described to fully understand the

foundation research principle.


Assume you were adetermining whether to expand into western Europe with distribution facilities to service online purchases of your

specialty goods company.

We start with the above table that presents data developed from several studies on online shopping and purchasing behavior in

selected countries in western Europe. The data are ordered alphabetically by country. While arranging in alphabetical order may be

ideal for randomization or reduction of bias, it isn’t a logical choice for clarity of data presentation.

What data might you need to help you make your decision about distribution facilities? Do you need to know the average

transaction size? If you don’t know the conversion rate of the euro to the dollar, can you interpret the table? Should you put

your investment in the United Kingdom or elsewhere?

Table 2 E5 Per Capita One-Year Online Spending (2010)

Annual Spending (EUROs)

Average Annual Purchases

Annual Spending (US$)

United Kingdom 2284.9 36 1736.2

Germany 658.0 20 500.0

France 664.5 16 505.0

Italy 345.5 14 262.6

Spain 560.1 10 425.6

Currency Exchange Rate: 1 US$ = 1.316 EURO

Table 1 Spending by Internet Users in Selected Western European Countries 2010 (EUROs in Billions)

Annual Spending

Annual Purchases

France Euro 664.5 16

Germany Euro 658.0 20

Italy Euro 345.5 14

Spain Euro 560.1 10

United Kingdom Euro 2284.9 36


Table 2 recasts the data using Bigwood and Spore’s guidelines. First the table title has changed; now the annual period on which

the spending data are based is more obvious, as well as the fact that we are looking at spending per capita for the top 5 European

Union performers, known as the E5. We’ve also changed the column headers to refl ect currency, and we have right-justifi ed the

headers and the numbers. We’ve rearranged the table by Average Spending (EURO) in descending order and interpreted the (EURO)

column by adding a dollar conversion column. We might not need the rightmost column if we were euro spenders ourselves but, if we

are more familiar with another currency, the addition of this column helps us interpret the data. With this arrangement, does Germany

look attractive? While it might not currently appear to be as strong a contender as the United Kingdom, we know it is fi scally strong

and located in a more central location to the other countries being considered.

>picprofi le According to the 2012 Greenbook Research Industry Trends (GRIT) report, the top four emerging techniques, among both research buyers and providers all involve Internet use. “A big climber, from actual 2011 to expected 2012, is Mobile Surveys, with clients/buyers jumping from a current 17% to an expected 53% and vendors expecting the increase to be from 24% to 64%.” Some speculate that the mobile survey may be approaching its tipping point. Other methodologies, like Mobile Qualita- tive, Mobile Ethnography, and Gamifi cation, are getting a lot of buzz in the industry, but have yet to capture buyer/client sup- port to the same degree that they have earned researcher interest. As in previous studies, researcher interest tends to lead on methodology. http://www.greenbook.org/PDFs/GRIT-S12-Full.pdf

Source: “Spring 2012 Greenbook Research Trends Report,” GreenBook® | New York AMA Communication Services Inc., February 2012, p. 22.

Leonard Murphy, “GRIT Sneak Peek: What Emerging Research Techniques Will Be Used in 2012?” Greenbook, posted February 20, 2012. Downloaded April 18, 2012, http://www.greenbookblog.org/2012/02/20/grit-sneak-peek-what-emerging- research-techniques-will-be- used-in-2012/.

Emerging Research Techniques

59 66


53 45


40 35

32 21

31 43

46 31

31 22 23 24





16 10

11 11

9 13

11 25






Social Media Analytics

Online Communities

Mobile Surveys

Text Analytics

Webcam-based Interviews

Apps-based Research

Eye Tracking

Mobile Ethnography

Mobile Qualitative

Virtual Environments


Visualization Analytics

Prediction Markets

Biometric Response


Facial Analysis

Gamification Methods Research provider (n=669) Research client (n=149)

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Learning aids cement the concepts.

Discussion questions that go one step further. Five types of discussion questions reveal differing levels of

understanding—from knowing a defi nition to applying a concept.

Terms in Review 1 How does qualitative research differ from quantitative


2 How do data from qualitative research differ from data in quantitative research?

3 Why do senior executives feel more comfortable relying on quantitative data than qualitative data? How might a quali- tative research company lessen the senior-level executive’s skepticism?

4 Distinguish between structured, semistructured, and un- structured interviews.

Making Research Decisions 5 Assume you are a manufacturer of small kitchen electrics,

like Hamilton Beach/Proctor Silex, and you want to de- termine if some innovative designs with unusual shapes and colors developed for the European market could be successfully marketed in the U.S. market. What qualitative research would you recommend, and why?

6 NCR Corporation, known as a world leader in ATMs, point-of-sale (POS) retail checkout scanners, and check- in kiosks at airports, announced in June 2009 that it would move its world headquarters from Dayton (OH)

> discussionquestions

bibliography 98

data marts 102

data mining 102

data warehouse 102

dictionary 98

directory 100

encyclopedia 98

expert interview 94

exploratory research 94

handbook 99

index 98

individual depth interview (IDI) 94

investigative questions 113

literature search 94

management question 108

measurement questions 118

custom-designed 118

predesigned 118

primary sources 96

research question(s) 112

secondary sources 96

source evaluation 100

tertiary sources 97


Terms in Review 1 Explain how each of the fi ve evaluation factors for a second-

ary source infl uences its management decision-making value.

a Purpose

b Scope

c Authority

d Audience

e Format

2 Defi ne the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in a secondary search.

3 What problems of secondary data quality must researchers face? How can they deal with them?

Making Research Decisions 4 In May 2007, TJX Co., the parent company of T.J.Maxx and

other retailers, announced in a Securities and Exchange Commission fi ling that more than 45 million credit and debit card numbers had been stolen from its IT systems. The company had taken some measures over a period of a few years to protect customer data through obfuscation and en- cryption. But TJX didn’t apply these policies uniformly across its IT systems. As a result, it still had no idea of the extent of the damage caused by the data breach. If you were TJX, what data-mining research could you do to evaluate the safety of your customer’s personal data?

5 Confronted by low sales, the president of Oaks Interna- tional Inc. asks a research company to study the activities of the customer relations department in the corporation. What are some of the important reasons that this research project may fail to make an adequate contribution to the solution of management problems?

6 You have been approached by the editor of Gentlemen’s Magazine to carry out a research study. The magazine has been unsuccessful in attracting shoe manufacturers as advertisers. When the sales reps tried to secure advertising from shoe manufacturers, they were told men’s clothing stores are a small and dying segment of their business. Since Gentlemen’s Magazine goes chiefl y to men’s clothing stores, the manufacturers reasoned that it was, therefore, not a good vehicle for their advertising. The editor believes that a survey (via mail questionnaire) of men’s clothing stores in the United States will probably show that these stores are important outlets for men’s shoes and are not declining in importance as shoe outlets. He asks you to develop a proposal for the study and submit it to him. Develop the management–research question hierarchy that will help you to develop a specifi c proposal.

7 Develop the management–research question hierarchy for a management dilemma you face at work or with an orga- nization to which you volunteer.

8 How might you use data mining if you were a human re- sources offi cer or a supervising manager?

Bring Research to Life 9 Using the MindWriter postservicing packaging alternative

as the research question, develop appropriate investigative questions within the question hierarchy by preparing an exhibit similar to Exhibit 5-8 .

10 Using Exhibits 5-6, 5-8, 5b-1, and 5b-2, state the research question and describe the search plan that Jason should have conducted before his brainstorming sessions with Myra Wines. What government sources should be included in Jason’s search?


mail survey a relatively low-cost self-administered study both delivered and returned via mail.

main effect the average direct infl uence that a particular treat- ment of the IV has on the DV independent of other factors.

management dilemma the problem or opportunity that requires a decision; a symptom of a problem or an early indication of an opportunity.

management question the management dilemma restated in question format; categorized as “choice of objectives,” “gen- eration and evaluation of solutions,” or “troubleshooting or control of a situation.”

management report a report written for the nontechnically ori- ented manager or client.

management–research question hierarchy process of sequen- tial question formulation that leads a manager or researcher from management dilemma to measurement questions.

manuscript reading the verbatim reading of a fully written presentation.

mapping rules a scheme for assigning numbers to aspects of an empirical event.

marginal(s) a term for the column and row totals in a cross-tabulation.

matching a process analogous to quota sampling for assigning participants to experimental and control groups by having participants match every descriptive characteristic used in the research; used when random assignment is not possible; an attempt to eliminate the effect of confounding variables that group participants so that the confounding variable is present proportionally in each group.

MDS see multidimensional scaling. mean the arithmetic average of a data distribution. mean square the variance computed as an average or mean. measurement assigning numbers to empirical events in com-

pliance with a mapping rule. measurement questions the questions asked of the participants

or the observations that must be recorded. measures of location term for measure of central tendency in a

distribution of data; see also central tendency . measures of shape statistics that describe departures from the sym-

metry of a distribution; a.k.a. moments, skewness , and kurtosis . measures of spread statistics that describe how scores cluster

or scatter in a distribution; a.k.a. dispersion or variability (variance, standard deviation, range, interquartile range, and

measures. mini-group a group interview involving two to six people. missing data information that is missing about a participant or

data record; should be discovered and rectifi ed during data preparation phase of analysis; e.g., miscoded data, out-of- range data, or extreme values.

mode the most frequently occurring value in a data distribution; data may have more than one mode.

model a representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspect of that system or the system as a whole.

moderating variable (MV) a second independent variable, be- lieved to have a signifi cant contributory or contingent effect on the originally stated IV-DV relationship.

moderator a trained interviewer used for group interviews such as focus groups.

monitoring a classifi cation of data collection that includes ob- servation studies and data mining of organizational databases.

motivated sequence a presentation planning approach that in- volves the ordering of ideas to follow the normal processes of human thinking; motivates an audience to respond to the presenter’s purpose.

multicollinearity occurs when more than two independent vari- ables are highly correlated.

multidimensional scale a scale that seeks to simultaneously measure more than one attribute of the participant or object.

multidimensional scaling (MDS) a scaling technique to simul- taneously measure more than one attribute of the participant or object; results are usually mapped; develops a geometric picture or map of the locations of some objects relative to others on various dimensions or properties; especially useful for diffi cult-to-measure constructs.

multiphase sampling see double sampling . multiple-choice, multiple-response scale a scale that offers

the participant multiple options and solicits one or more an- swers (nominal or ordinal data); a.k.a. checklist .

multiple-choice question a measurement question that offers more than two category responses but seeks a single answer.

multiple-choice, single-response scale a scale that poses more than two category responses but seeks a single answer, or one that seeks a single rating from a gradation of preference, in- terest, or agreement (nominal or ordinal data); a.k.a. multiple- choice question .

multiple comparison tests compare group means following the fi nding of a statistically signifi cant F test.

Key terms indexed at the end of the

chapter and defi ned in the glossary.

Glossary reinforces the importance

of learning the language of


Supplements offer the tools students and faculty ask for . . . and more. On the book’s Online Learning Center (www.mhhe.com/

cooper12e), students will fi nd cases (like this new one) and

data sets, a research proposal, a sample student project, and

supplemental material for several chapters, including

templates for charting data, how the research industry works,

bibliographic databases searching tips, complex experimental

designs, test markets, pretesting, and multivariate analysis.

You’ll also fi nd 34 cases, nine of which are full video cases.

Also, several written cases have video components included.

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For undergraduate students just learning about research methods or graduate students advancing their research knowledge, each new edition of Business Research Meth- ods promises—and has continually delivered—not only a teachable textbook but a valued reference for the future. As a mark of its worldwide acceptance as an industry standard, Business Research Methods is available in nine international editions and four languages.

When you are creating a 12th edition, you don’t want to tinker too much with what has made instructors adopt your textbook for their students or what has prompted research- ers to use it as a valuable shelf reference. But to ignore change in the research environment would be negligent.


We used the 2012 GreenBook Research Industry Trends (GRIT) Report as a starting point for creating the 12th edi- tion. This large study of research suppliers and research clients gave us clear direction on emerging techniques and how the research fi eld was changing. We focused our ef- forts on obtaining examples of these changes and they are included in content throughout the book and in Snapshots and PicProfi les—both contentwise and visually.

Responsive . . . to Students and Faculty

Snapshots, PicProfi les, and CloseUps are the way we re- veal what is timely and current in research. We wait until such issues are more mainstream before giving the topic a permanent place within the text. In fact, of the 82 Snap- shots and PicProfi les featured, 35 are completely new and one-half of the CloseUps had major updates. Of these new examples, you will fi nd topics dealing with biometrics, eye tracking via the Web, mobile surveys, online com- munities, listening tours, location-based tracking, talent analytics, incentivizing participants, data visualization, mixed mode surveys, mixed access recruiting, charting, as well as Internet research, cloud computing, using Excel in data analysis and presentation, Smartphone research, dirty data, gut hunches, wildcat surveys, and more. And you’ll discover research stories that relate to such organi- zations or brands as Mercedes-Benz, TNS-Infratest, NTT Communications, Next Generation Market Research, In- teractive Advertising Bureau, Groupon, TrustE, Decipher, Living Social, Troy-Bilt, among numerous others.

There are currently about 200 images and text art sup- porting our learning objectives; you will discover that over one-quarter are new to this edition. We’ve updated our “From the Headlines” discussion ques tions, covering

product introductions, employee issues, legal proceed- ings, advertising campaigns, and many more topics and added more research examples to the Instructor’s Manual, for use in class discussions or testing.

Our book is designed for a one-semester course although under no circumstance is it imagined that the entire book be covered. In an effort to make the book more user friendly yet give faculty members tremendous fl exibility in choosing materials for the theme they set for their course, we have created an Online Learning Center for the text. Analogous to cloud computing, we stored regularly used data on McGraw-Hill’s servers that can be easily accessed through the Internet. Central to that design, we moved ma- terial from chapter appendices to the Online Learning Cen- ter thereby reducing the physical size of the book that our own students often carry with them. Among those items available at the Online Learning Center are How the In- dustry Works, Bibliographic Database Searches, Advanced Bibliographic Searches, Complex Experimental Designs, Test Markets, and Pretesting Options and Discoveries. Since many research methods courses for undergraduates don’t use multivariate statistics, we’ve moved our chap- ter “Multivariate Analysis: An Overview” to the Online Learning Center for the benefi t of graduate students. You’ll also fi nd written and video cases, questionnaires, data sets, a sample student project, and digital support materials re- lated to some of our Snapshots and CloseUps in the Online Learning Center.

We continue to use chapter and end-of-text appendices for information that, given the differing skills and knowl- edge of their students, instructors may want to emphasize. We retained end-of-chapter appendices related to Craft- ing Effective Measurement Questions and Determining Sample Size, as well as end-of book appendices related to a sample proposal, a focus group guide, non-parametric statistics, and statistical tables.


Process Series of Exhibits The core pedagogy of Business Research Methods is based on an understanding that student learners are of three types: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. These exhibits offer a detailed, graphical map of the research process or a more detailed breakout of each subprocess, perfect for hands-on projects. Each of these exhibits is linked to others in the series with a consistent use of shape and color. You’ll fi nd 32 of these exhibits throughout the text. Changes in process exhibits, other exhibits, and embedded tables resulted in twenty- three major modifi cations using new information, data, or graphs throughout the text.


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>preface xiii

Online Learning Center There is a wealth of informa- tion, samples, templates, and more in this Web depository.

Written Cases. Cases offer an opportunity to tell re- search stories in more depth and detail. You’ll fi nd a new case, Marcus Thomas LLC Tests Hypothesis for Troy-Bilt Creative Development, complete with its online questionnaire, at the Online Learning Center. You’ll also fi nd cases about hospital services, lotter- ies, data mining, fundraising, new promotions, and website design, among other topics, featuring orga- nizations like Akron Children’s Hospital, Kelly Blue Book, Starbucks, Yahoo!, the American Red Cross, and more.

Video Cases. We are pleased to continue to make available a fi rst in video supplements, several short segments drawn from a two-hour metaphor elicitation technique (MET) interview. These segments should be invaluable in teaching students to conduct almost any type of individual depth interview and to explain the concept of researcher–participant rapport. Four of our video cases were written and produced especially to match the research process model in this text and feature noted companies: Lexus, Starbucks, Wirthlin Worldwide (now Harris Interactive), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, GMMB, Visa, Bank One, Team One Advertising, U.S. Tennis Association, Vigilante New York, and the Taylor Group.

Web Exercises. It is appropriate to do Web searches as part of a research methods course, so each chapter offers one or more exercises to stimulate your students to hone their searching skills. Due to the ever- changing nature of Web URLs, however, we offer these exercises in the Instructor’s Manual.

Articles, Samples, and Templates. Students often need to see how professionals do things to really understand, so you’ll fi nd a sample EyeTrackShop report, a Nielsen report of using U.S. Census data, an Excel template for generating sample data displays, and more.

Sample Student Project. Visualization of the fi n- ished deliverable is crucial to creating a strong re- search report.


When revising an edition, many individuals and compa- nies contribute. Here are some who deserve special recog- nition and our gratitude.

• To all those researchers and consultancy profes- sionals who shared their projects, images, ideas, perspectives, and the love of what they do through e-mails and interviews and who helped us develop

cases, Snapshots, PicProfi les, exhibits, or CloseUps, or provided new visuals, we extend our heartfelt ap- preciation: Edwige Winans, Marcus Thomas, LLC; Jennifer Hirt-Marchand, Marcus Thomas, LLC; Kristin Luck, Decipher; Tom H. C. Anderson, An- derson Analytics; Leonard F. Murphy, GreenBook; Rachel Sockut, Innerscope; Erica Cenci, Brady PR for OpinionLab; Olescia Hanson, The Container Store; Cynthia Clark, 1to1 Magazine; Rachel Soc- kut, Innerscope; Betty Adamou, Research Through Gaming Ltd.; Debra Semans, Polaris Marketing Research; Keith Chrzan, Maritz Research, Inc.; Michael Kemery, Maritz Research, Inc.; Christian Bauer, Daimler AG; Kai Blask, TNS Infratest; Melinda Gardner, Novation; Pete Cape, SSI; Keith Phillips, SSI; Sean Case, Research for Good; Nels Wroe; SHL; Ephraim (Jeff ) Bander, EyeTrack- Shop; Ron Sellers, Grey Matter Research & Con- sulting; Guadalupe Pagalday, Qualvu.com; Sandra Klaunzler, TNS Infratest; Betty Adamou, Research Through Gaming Ltd; Steve August, Revelation; Kathy Miller, GMI (Global Market Insite, Inc.); Takayuki NOZOE, NTT Communications Cor- poration; Janeen Hazel, Luth Research; Christine Stricker, RealtyTrac; Stephanie Blakely, The Pros- per Foundation; Jennifer Frighetto, Nielsen; Andy Pitched, Research Triangle Institute (RTI Interna- tional); Jeffrey C. Adler, Centric DC Marketing Re- search; Josh Mendelssohn, Chadwick Martin Bailey, Inc.; Ruth Stan at, SIS International Research; Sha- ron Starr, IPC, Inc.; Lance Jones, Keynote Systems; Keith Crosley, Proofpoint; Christopher Schultheiss, SuperLetter.com; Hy Mariampolski, QualiData Research Inc; Julie Grabarkewitz and Paul Herrera, American Heart Association; Holly Ripans, Ameri- can Red Cross; Mike Bordner and Ajay Gupta, Bank One; Laurie Laurant Smith, Arielle Burgess, Jill Grech, David Lockwood, and Arthur Miller, Campbell-Ewald; Francie Turk, Consumer Con- nections; Tom Krouse, Donatos Pizza; Annie Burns and Aimee Seagal, GMMB; Laura Light and Steve Struhl, Harris Interactive; Emil Vicale, Herobuild- ers.com; Adrian Chiu, NetConversions; Eric Lipp, Open Doors Organization; Stuart Schear, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Elaine Arkin, consultant to RWJF; Colette Courtion, Starbucks; Mark Miller, Team One Advertising; Rebecca Conway, The Tay- lor Research Group; Scott Staniar, United States Tennis Association; Danny Robinson, Vigilante; Maury Giles, Wirthlin Worldwide; and Ken Mallon, Yahoo!; and colleagues at IBM and Lenovo.

• To Jane Ducham, our Developmental Editor and Christina Kouvelis, Managing Developmental Editor, who facilitated the complex process and to our Senior Brand Manager Thomas Hayward,

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xiv >preface

who felt strongly enough about us as successful authors to support this revision. • To the remainder of our McGraw-Hill team, for

making the book a priority: • Content Project Manager: Mary Jane Lampe • Marketing Manager: Heather Kazakoff • Media Project Manager: Prashanthi Nadipalli • Buyer: Nichole Birkenholz • Designer: Studio Montage • Photo Researcher: Danny Meldung

• To our faculty reviewers for their insights, sugges- tions, disagreements, and challenges that encour- aged us to look at our content in different ways: Robert Wheatley, Troy University; Gary Tucker Northwestern, Oklahoma State University; War- ren Matthews, LeTourmeau University; Marjolijn Vandervelde, Davemport University; Ron E. Holm; Cardinal Stritch University (Director of Distance Learning); Erika Matulich, University of Tampa; Cheryl O’Meara Brown, University of West Geor- gia; Kay Braguglia, Hampton University; Ken Zula, Keystone College; Bob Folden, Texas A&M University; Scott Baker, Champlain College; Scott Bailey, Troy University; Robert Balik, Western Michigan University–Kalamazoo; John A. Ballard, College of Mount St. Joseph; Jayanta Bandyopad- hyay, Central Michigan University; Larry Banks, University of Phoenix; Caroll M. Belew, New Mex- ico Highlands University; Jim Brodzinski, College of Mount St. Joseph; Taggert Brooks, University of Wisconsin–La Crosse; L. Jay Burks, Lincoln Uni- versity; Marcia Carter, University of Southern New Hampshire; Raul Chavez, Eastern Mennonite Uni- versity; Darrell Cousert, University of Indianapolis; David Dorsett, Florida Institute of Technology; Michael P. Dumler, Illinois State University; Kathy Dye, Thomas More College; Don English, Texas A&M University–Commerce; Antonnia Espiritu,

Hawaii Pacifi c University; Hamid Falatoon, Univer- sity of Redlands; Judson Faurer, Metropolitan State College of Denver; Eve Fogarty, New Hampshire College; Bob Folden, Texas A&M University–Com- merce; Gary Grudintski, San Diego State Univer- sity; John Hanke, Eastern Washington University; Alan G. Heffner, Silver Lake College; Lee H. Igel, New York University; Burt Kaliski, New Hampshire College; Jane Legacy, Southern New Hampshire University; Andrew Luna, State University of West Georgia; Andrew Lynch, Southern New Hamp- shire University; Iraj Mahdvi, National University; Judith McKnew, Clemson University; Rosemarie Reynolds, Embry Riddle Aero University–Daytona; Randi L. Sims, Nova Southeastern University; Gary Stark, Northern Michigan University; Bruce Strom, University of Indianapolis; Cecelia Tempomi, Southwest Texas State University; Charles War- ren, Salem State College; Dennis G. Weis, Alliant International University; Bill Wresch, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh; and Robert Wright, University of Illinois at Springfi eld.

We are also indebted to dozens of students who identi- fi ed areas of confusion so that we could make concepts more understandable, who participated in search tests, who worked on numerous research projects demonstrat- ing where we needed to place more emphasis, and who reminded us with their questions and actions that many aspects of the research process operate below their learn- ing radar.

Through this 12th edition, we hope you and your stu- dents discover, or rediscover, how stimulating, challeng- ing, fascinating, and sometimes frustrating this world of research-supported decision making can be.

Pamela Schindler Donald Cooper

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In its 12th edition, Business Research Methods, all chap- ters have been evaluated for currency and accuracy. Revi- sions were made to accommodate new information and trends in the industry. The book has a new structure and the Online Learning Center has been enhanced.

• The book chapter structure was changed by moving Multivariate Analysis: An Overview to the Online Learning Center, and renumbering the last two chapters, making the book 20 chapters in all, and by moving several end-of-chapter appendices to the Online Learning Center, as noted in the for-each-of- the-chapters section below.

• We’ve removed the feature we called a pulsepoint— the pullout statistic drawn from a research project— to streamline the appearance of the chapter, and because this element was not a reviewer favorite.

• The Cases section contains the abstract for the new case: Marcus Thomas LLC Tests Hypothesis for Troy-Bilt Creative Development, and an updated case-by-chapter suggested use chart.

• Appendix A includes the newly redesigned Mind- Writer CompleteCare online survey.

• The 2012 Online Learning Center has new mate- rial including: a new case, Marcus Thomas LLC Tests Hypothesis for Troy-Bilt Creative Develop- ment, complete with instrument; the permissioned report Business Uses of Census Data and Nielsen Company Capabilities; EyeTrackShop’s example report Visual Effectiveness Research on McDonald’s YouTube Ad; the following appendices: Appendix 1a: How the Research Industry Works (updated), Appendix 5a: Bibliographic Database Searches, Ap- pendix 5b: Advanced Database Searches (updated), Appendix 9a: Complex Experimental Designs, Ap- pendix 9b: Test Markets, Appendix 13b: Pretesting Options and Discoveries; and the chapter Multivari- ate Analysis: An Overview.

• The Instructor’s Manual contains new research ex- amples for discussion or testing, as noted below.

For Each of the Chapters. A detailed listing of chapter-by-chapter changes is provided here for your convenience.

• Chapter 1 The following elements are new to this edition: the chapter-opening pull quote; opening paragraph expounding on the theme relating to cloud technology and research; three new Snapshots: on Mercedes-Benz Snapshot of the Stars Insight online

research community, on the client perspective of consultancy skills needed by researchers, and on pattern thinking at YUM!; updates to the factors that encourage the studying of research methods; new NTT Communications ad with caption relating to the importance of information to business; a PicProfi le on NextGen Marketing Research blog and website screenshot, related to blogs as an online training source for researchers; a new exhibit Where Business Collects Research Information and modifi cations to two Exhibits: the research process and what guar- antees good research; and a new from-the-headlines discussion

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