# . Your data results are 2, 14, 6, 8, 10, 4, 12, 8. a) What is the mean?

. Your data results are 2, 14, 6, 8, 10, 4, 12, 8. a) What is the mean?

Please highlight the correct answers

1. Your data results are 2, 14, 6, 8, 10, 4, 12, 8. a) What is the mean? b) What is the median? c) What is the mode?

2. A researcher asks hospitalized patients about their comfort in a new type of gown. This is an example of what type of data? a) ratio b) independent c) quantitative d) qualitative.

3. If a researcher is examining how exposure to cigarette ads affects smoking behavior, cigarette ads are what type of variable? a) qualitative b) quantitative c) dependent d)independent.

4. A research nurse is coding according to size. BMI is coded by 1: below average 2: average 3: above average. What level of measurement is this? a) nominal b) ratio c)ordinal d)interval.

5. A study is completed to examine the relationship between gender and sports participation. It was conducted randomly surveying ninth graders. a) What level of measure is gender? b) Write a null hypothesis for this study. c) If the p value is < 0.005, do you accept or reject the null hypothesis?

__Case Study I__

Dr. Intellectual conducted a study to measure if a telephone intervention by nurses (nurses calling patients after discharge) reduces readmissions within 30 days of discharge. All discharged patients were called within 48 hours of discharge, between June 1 and August 1, to discuss compliance with discharge instructions.

1. What type of research is this?

a. qualitative

b. quantitative

2. Which type of design is this?

a. descriptive

b. correlational

c. quasi-experimental

d. experimental

e. phenomenological

f. ethnography

g. historical

h. grounded theory

3. Which type of design is this?

a. cross-sectional

b. longitudinal

c. retrospective

4. What is the target population?

a. all patients at this hospital

b. all discharged patients at this hospital

c. all discharged patients discharged from this hospital between June 1 and August 1

d. all discharged patients at all hospitals

5. Identify the independent variable

a. telephone calls

b. readmissions

c. 48 hours post discharge

d. compliance with discharge instructions

6. What level of measurement is the independent variable?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

7. Identify the dependent variable.

a. telephone calls

b. readmissions

c. 48 hours post discharge

d. compliance with discharge instructions

8. What level of measurement is the dependent variable?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

Patients were asked 10 questions: if they knew their discharge instructions, if they had filled their medication prescriptions, if they had started taking the medications as ordered, if they were following orders regarding activity levels, and if they were eating as instructed. The data collectors talked at length about each of these issues with each patient.

9. If the patient had filled their medication prescriptions, the data collector indicated a “yes.”

What level of measurement is this?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

10. If the patient was taking all of their medications as ordered, the data collector gave the patient a “3.” If the patient was taking most of the medications ordered, the data collector gave the patient a “2.” If the patient was taking few of the medications ordered, the patient was rated as “1.” What level of measurement is this?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

11. The patients had a right to refuse to answer the callers’ questions. This is an example of which ethical principle?

a. the principle of respect

b. the principle of beneficence

c. the principle of justice

12. Patients were told that they could decide not to answer questions, even if they had already answered some of them. This is an example of which ethical principle?

a. the principle of respect

b. the principle of beneficence

c. the principle of justice

13. Data collectors protected the identity of the patients by giving each one a code and keeping personal information in a separate file. This is an example of:

a. anonymity

b. confidentiality

14. Which method of data analysis did Dr. Intellectual use to analysis the data (as described in Question 10)?

a. frequency distribution

b. Pearson’s *r*

c. chi square

d. *t* test

15. Dr. Intellectual later decided to compare the responses of the patients by grouping them by the unit they had been discharged from. He wanted to know, for example, if the patients who were discharged from unit 3 South were more compliant and readmitted fewer times than the patients who were discharge from unit 4 North. What type of study is Dr. Intellectual conducting now?

a. descriptive

b. correlational

c. quasi-experimental

d. experimental

e. phenomenological

f. ethnography

g. historical

h. grounded theory

16. What statistical analyses will Dr. Intellectual use to analyze data regarding number of patients readmitted?

a. frequency distribution

b. Pearson’s *r*

c. chi square

d. *t* test

__Case Study 2__

17. Nurse Feelgood conducted a study to discover the lived experience of parents whose unborn children undergo surgery while in utero. She wanted to obtain in-depth descriptions of their experiences. Which design did she use?

a. descriptive

b. correlational

c. quasi-experimental

d. experimental

e. phenomenological

f. ethnography

g. historical

h. grounded theory

18. She obtained people to participate in the study by asking patients admitted to the hospital for the surgery. She was able to find 12 patients over a three-month period. What method of sample selection did she use?

a. purposive

b. snowball

c. convenience

d. quota

19. What were the members of her sample called?

a. subjects

b. participants

c. target population

d. cohort

20. How did she collect data?

a. survey

b. interview

c. chart review

d. all of the above

21. How did she reduce the likelihood of introducing bias into the study?

a. power analysis

b. random sampling

c. bracketing

d. control of extraneous variables

22. Was a sample of 12 large enough to find significant differences?

a. Yes. Sample sizes are small in these types of studies.

b. No. The power of this study would be too low to find significance.

c. This type of study does not look for significant differences.

23. What method did she use to analyze the data?

a. coding

b. *t* tests

c. chi square

d. Mann Whitney U

24. Are her findings generalizable to the larger population?

a. Yes, if she used rigor in her methods.

b. No, the sample size is too small.

c. Findings are not generalizable in this type of research.

__Case Study 3__

Nurse Noseinabook wants to find out if the hospital policy at Mercy General Hospital regarding frequency of Foley catheter tubing changes is based on evidence. The policy currently states that Foley catheter tubing should be changed once a month at the same time as the replacement of the Foley itself. The policy was created in 1995 and updated in 2005. Only one reference was indicated as a source of evidence supporting the data: guidelines from the Urologists Association of America (UAA) dated 2002.

25. Nurse Noseinabook searches for the 2002 guidelines and discovers them at the UAA website. They were written in 2002 and were based on 2 correlational studies, 1 descriptive study, and expert opinion. Is this evidence strong enough to base nursing practice or hospital policy on?

a. Yes, as long as the power of each study was above 0.80.

b. Yes, although it would have been stronger to have a clinical trial included.

c. No. These studies do not provide evidence that is strong enough.

26. Nurse Noseinabook decides to find more recent studies on this topic. Which source would be the most credible for her search?

a. Science reviews in *Newsweek* magazine

b. a column about causes of urinary tract infections in the *Wall Street Journal*

c. a meta-analysis of the causes of urinary tract infections

d. data from a secondary source

27. If Nurse Noseinabook had decided to look for credible sources written by nurses only, which one of the following would be most appropriate?

a. Pubmed

b. Cochran Collaboration

c. Ebsco/Cinahl

d. American Academy of Pediatrics

28. Nurse Noseinabook finds a more recent guideline written by the Internal Medicine Association (IMA). Much of the recommendations they made are in agreement with the Mercy General Hospital policy, but the IMA’s are more complete. What should Nurse Noseinabook recommend?

a. Keep the original policy and add a few additions to it.

b. Update the policy and use the new source as evidence.

c. Make no changes.

__Case Study 4__

A researcher conducted an experimental study where one group of patients was given a new drug for hypertension and another group was given a commonly used diuretic. The blood pressures of both groups were measured at the same times each day for a week.

29. What was the researcher’s __intervention__ in this study?

a. the timing of blood pressure measurements

b. the type of drug given

c. having 2 groups of subjects

d. all of the above

30. To assign patients to a study group, a number was pulled from a hat by the nurse admitting the patient. An odd number meant that the patient was assigned to the group that received the new drug; an even number assigned the patient to the group that received the commonly used diuretic. This method of sample selection is:

a. simple random selection

b. stratified random selection

c. cluster sampling

d. systematic sampling

31. Which type of design is this?

a. descriptive

b. correlational

c. quasi-experimental

d. experimental

e. phenomenological

f. ethnography

g. historical

h. grounded theory

32. Which type of design is this?

a. cross-sectional

b. longitudinal

c. retrospective

33. Identify the independent variable

a. blood pressure

b. type of drug

c. timing of blood pressure

34. What level of measurement is the independent variable?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

35. Identify the dependent variable.

a. blood pressure

b. type of drug

c. timing of blood pressure

36. What level of measurement is the dependent variable?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio

37. What method of analysis did this researcher use?

a. *t* test

b. chi square

c. Man Whitney U

d. ANOVA

38. The groups were found to be different with a *p* value of 0.03. If the level of significance had been set at 0.05, was the difference statistically different?

a. yes

b. no

39. The power of the study was found to be 0.85. Was the sample size large enough?

a. yes

b. no

40. If the researcher accepted the research hypothesis and rejected the null, what Type of error could the researcher be making?

a. Type 1

b. Type 2

41. What could the researcher have done to prevent making a Type I error? (answer all that apply)

a. Make the level of significance 0.01

b. Make the level of significance 0.10

c. Increase the sample size

d. Increase the power

42. What could the researcher have done to prevent making a Type 2 error? (answer all that apply)

a. Make the level of significance 0.01

b. Make the level of significance 0.10

c. Increase the sample size

d. Increase the power

43. The researcher did not tell the subjects that they had a right to refuse to participate in the study. Which right was violated?

a. self-determination

b. protection from harm

c. fair treatment

d. no human right was violated

44. Who is legally responsible for enforcing the rights of human subjects in this study?

a. the researcher and the hospital’s IRB

b. the medical director and the hospital’s IRB

c. the IRB and the hospital administrator

d. all of the above

45. If the dependent variable of this study had had a smaller effect size, what would have been indicated?

a. a larger sample size

b. a smaller sample size

__Case Study 5__

Two classes take the same research final examination. The mean of one class is 80(8) and the mean of the other is 85(13).

46. What is true about these scores?

a. The highest grades between the 2 groups were most likely in the class with a mean of

85.

b. The lowest score of either class is 75.

c. All students in the class with the higher average did better on the exam.

d. The class with the mean of 80 had more A’s.

47. What type of measure is the final examination?

a. direct

b. indirect

48. The instructor wants to know if the mean scores from the two classes are statistically different and set a level of significance of 0.05 (p = 0.05) to compare them. Findings indicated a p value of 0.10. How would you interpret this finding?

a. There was less difference that the researcher was looking for.

b. There was a lower degree of sameness among the subjects than the researcher was looking for.

c. This level of significance indicated that the two classes were different.

49. The test had 150 questions on it. What is true about sample sizes when there are more variables being tested?

a. The more variables a study has the fewer the subjects needed.

b. The more variables a study has the more subjects that are needed.

50. What level of measurement is the dependent variable of this study?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval

d. ratio