Contemporary Public Policy Issue

For your Final Project, select a contemporary public policy issue, such as gay marriage, women in combat, reproductive rights, gun control, or similar issues. Conduct research on current law and policy affecting that issue using scholarly sources and cases that you find through the Walden University Library or using Google Scholar. Tips for using Google Scholar can be found on the Walden University Library website. Prepare a 10- to 12-page (double-spaced) paper that addresses the following:

Statement: Of the policy issue and why you selected this issue (relevance).
Explanation: Of current law and policy surrounding this issue, referencing the relevant cases, statutes, regulations, and policies.
Analysis: This is the principal component of your essay. Provide a reasoned, scholarly, and non-opinionated analysis of current debate surrounding this issue. Is it controversial? Why or why not? Is there a chance the issue will be heard by the court soon? What is the likely outcome based upon past decisions? How is the issue framed by different political parties? Is it seen differently in the United States as compared to other countries? Why?
Conclusion: What did you learn from this research that can be helpful in discussing this issue in the future? Do you see any resolution or is this likely to remain a divided issue for some time?
Sources: Be sure to include at least 10 scholarly sources to support your analysis. Cite them in proper Bluebook format. Use The Bluebook that you used in prior courses for assistance in proper citation format.

Theorical Nursing

After reading Chapter 2 from your textbook, please post your comments and discussions for the next topics:
1. Identify and summarize at least three theoretical works in nursing and how can you apply it when you start your nursing career.

Diversity Among Individuals, As Well As Cultures, Provides A Challenge For Nurses When It Comes To Delivering Meaningful Health Promotion And Illness Prevention-Based Education. How Do Teaching Principles, Varied Learning Styles (For Both Nurses And Pat profile

needs 300 words

MN566 Advanced Nursing Discussion Board: Preventative Care

Will need minimum of 300 words, APA Style, double spaced, times new romans, font 12, and and Include: 3 references with intext citations

Preventative Care

What questions will you want to ask your patients at every visit in order to get the information needed to provide individualized preventive services?

Include questions below in the discussion board answer:

How does the age and gender of the patient impact your approach to delivering preventive services and providing health education?

How does the patient’s developmental milestones impact their ability to make healthy changes and take charge of their health?

What are some risk factors associated with health promotion?

Homework

You have to create an E-Poster on what you see as the future of nursing practice and the role of nursing in the emerging health-care environment. You need to predict the future based on present evidence. The E-Poster needs to include the following:

1. Introduction

2. Statement of the issue

3. Evidence supporting the issue

4. Prediction of the future role of the nurse

5. Conclusion

6. References: minimum of three references from peer-reviewed nursing journals (encourage the use of international journals). Articles need to be within the last 3 years unless historical.

Assignment: Adaptive Response

Assignment: Adaptive Response

As an advanced practice nurse, you will examine patients presenting with a variety of disorders. You must, therefore, understand how the body normally functions so that you can identify when it is reacting to changes. Often, when changes occur in body systems, the body reacts with compensatory mechanisms. These compensatory mechanisms, such as adaptive responses, might be signs and symptoms of alterations or underlying disorders. In the clinical setting, you use these responses, along with other patient factors, to lead you to a diagnosis.

Consider the following scenarios:

Scenario 1:

Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in her usual state of good health until 3 days ago when she started to get fussy, would not eat her breakfast, and would not sit still for her favorite television cartoon. Since then she has had a fever off and on, anywhere between 101oF and today’s high of 103.2oF. Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when the fever went up to 103.2oF today, she felt that she should come in for evaluation. A physical examination reveals a height and weight appropriate 2-year-old female who appears acutely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened on the periphery, but otherwise normal in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates. Anterior cervical nodes are readily palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. The child indicates that her throat hurts “a lot” and it is painful to swallow. Vital signs reveal a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute.

Scenario 2:

Jack is a 27-year-old male who presents with redness and irritation of his hands. He reports that he has never had a problem like this before, but about 2 weeks ago he noticed that both his hands seemed to be really red and flaky. He denies any discomfort, stating that sometimes they feel “a little bit hot,” but otherwise they feel fine. He does not understand why they are so red. His wife told him that he might have an allergy and he should get some steroid cream. Jack has no known allergies and no significant medical history except for recurrent ear infections as a child. He denies any traumatic injury or known exposure to irritants. He is a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building and admits that he often works with abrasive solvents and chemicals. Normally he wears protective gloves, but lately they seem to be in short supply so sometimes he does not use them. He has exposed his hands to some of these cleaning fluids, but says that it never hurt and he always washed his hands when he was finished.

Scenario 3:

Martha is a 65-year-old woman who recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which has been controlled for years with hydrochlorothiazide. She reports that lately she is having a lot of trouble sleeping, she occasionally feels like she has a “racing heartbeat,” and she is losing her appetite. She emphasizes that she is not hungry like she used to be. The only significant change that has occurred lately in her life is that her 87-year-old mother moved into her home a few years ago. Mom had always been healthy, but she fell down a flight of stairs and broke her hip. Her recovery was a difficult one, as she has lost a lot of mobility and independence and needs to rely on her daughter for assistance with activities of daily living. Martha says it is not the retirement she dreamed about, but she is an only child and is happy to care for her mother. Mom wakes up early in the morning, likes to bathe every day, and has always eaten 5 small meals daily. Martha has to put a lot of time into caring for her mother, so it is almost a “blessing” that Martha is sleeping and eating less. She is worried about her own health though and wants to know why, at her age, she suddenly needs less sleep.

To Prepare

· Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 6 in the Huether and McCance text.

· Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios, including their associated alterations. Consider the adaptive responses to the alterations.

· Construct a mind map for the disorder described on the Scenario 1: Consider the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper excluding the title page, reference page and Mind Map that addresses the following:

· For each of the three scenarios explain the pathophysiology, associated alterations and the patients’ adaptive responses to the alterations caused by the disease processes. You are required to discuss all three scenarios within the paper component of this assignment.

· Construct one mind map on the disorder described on Scenario 1. Your Mind Map must include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.

Instructor Requirements

As advanced practice nurses, we are scholars, nurse researchers and scientists. As such, please use Peer-Reviewed scholarly articles and websites designed for health professionals (not designed for patients) for your references. Students should be using the original citation in Up to Date and go to that literature as a reference. The following are examples (not all inclusive) of resources/websites deemed inadmissible for scholarly reference:

Up to Date (must use original articles from Up to Date as a resource)
Wikipedia
Cdc.gov- non healthcare professionals section
Webmd.com
Mayoclinic.com

Discussion Question Min 150 Words No Plagiarism With 3 References Due March 14 At 2:00 Pm

What do the four parts of the Christian Biblical Narrative (i.e., creation, fall, redemption, and restoration) say about the nature of God and of reality in relation to the reality of sickness and disease? From where would one find comfort and hope in the light of illness according to this narrative? Explain in detail each part of the narrative above and analyze the implications.

Disasters

Must have back by 11 am eastern standard time
Disaster

Contact a disaster preparedness person at either a local hospital, or local city or county emergency services agency. NORTHEAST OHIO

1. Blackout 2003

2. Chardon Highschool shooting 2012

3. Great blizzard 1978

Interview your contact, asking the following questions:

1) “What do you consider to be the top three disasters for which you prepare?”

2) “What would you say are your top three lessons learned about managing a disaster?”

What Would the Best Future for Health Care Look Like?

Introduction

The one thing the debate over reforming health care taught us all is that there are as many opinions as there are interested groups, and all of them differ in meaningful ways. To look at the views on improving the systems of care delivery, it is important to note where they have points of agreement and where they differ. They are all driven by the values and principles of the constituencies and what they hope to achieve from changes in the delivery system. This module will explore points of agreement and differences between important groups that will influence the direction health care will go in the next decade.

Patients

It is an interesting point that all constituencies, in their public statements, emphasize that a strong health care system should focus on getting the best outcomes for patients. What would that be, from the perspective of patients? Typically, patients relate that they want top quality in their care and the latest technology, along with immediate and unrestricted access to care, at the lowest possible cost. This triad has become the stumbling block of change initiatives, since to date, no one has figured out how to deliver all three. However, when patients’ views are explored and probed, some interesting facts emerge. When patients say they want top quality care, in general, they tend to define that as achieving a cure or return to health. They certainly do not want to leave the system feeling worse than when they came in. Patients have been heavily lobbied in the media by pharmaceutical and medical technology companies to convince them that the latest (and most expensive) technology will deliver the desired outcomes. However, very little real research on the true effectiveness of treatments and technology makes its way to most patients, and patients in general do not shop for their medical care as carefully as they would if they were purchasing new cars, for example. The language of research and medicine is difficult for patients to understand and is frequently not well-explained by providers.

So, the nuances of top quality care in terms of being able to deliver a cure or return to health are not well understood by the constituency with the most at risk. What patients do understand is whether they feel better or see improvement in their health and whether care was rendered without errors and in a compassionate way. The best health care system, from a patient’s point of view, is one that can consistently deliver the goods in terms of a cure and a return to health, in a way that is safe for the patient and does not hit them with unexpected or heavy costs, from providers they trust to have their best interests at heart.

Physicians

Physicians, in general, strongly believe that they are the most informed providers of care and are best placed to make the needed decisions about what care is best for the patient. They may or may not be interested in new research results, innovations in care, new drugs or technologies, or new systems of care. Physicians believe that medicine is an art as much as a science, and many of them develop entrenched patterns of providing care that can be resistant to changes unless and until those changes are proven over time. Since physicians believe they are the best primary decision makers on care alternatives, they may strongly resent restrictions on utilization, selections of drugs and treatments, or the requirements to preauthorize care, which are placed by insurance companies. Many physicians see these requirements as bureaucratic waste built into the system to cut costs, without regard for patient benefit. They also struggle with the need to contract with insurance companies for what physicians see as low-value reimbursement and feel helpless to negotiate better rates of pay overall. Their idea of an ideal delivery system is one where they have the freedom to practice medicine without regulatory or utilization restraints, without fears of malpractice claims when patients do not get the outcomes they want, and without worry about being paid appropriately for what they do. Their ideal system would not include any form of micromanagement by insurance companies but instead offers fair and reasonable (by the physician’s definition) payment for services immediately upon receipt of the physician’s bill. In the physician’s ideal world, nothing stands between the patient and his/her physician in determining and carrying out care.

Hospitals

Hospitals also tend to remember the days when they provided the services ordered by the physician to patients, submitted their bills, and were paid as requested in a timely manner. The current reality is that increasingly hospitals are being paid a flat fee, or case rate, for an episode of care. This leads hospitals to focus on procedures, which pay better, and to conduct their own utilization management in order to keep their costs down. This may also extend to the physician, who may be told that she/he cannot give a certain drug to a patient due to its high cost or must limit the choice of a hip implant to one or two vendors with which the hospital has contracts. Hospitals and physicians thus enter into a complicated relationship, where they both need each other but also continue to push against each other: the physician striving for more autonomy in providing care and services to the patients, and the hospital attempting to reduce costs below the case rate in order to avoid financial losses. Hospitals are extremely regulated by laws, rules, and regulations, which change frequently. One of the newest departments in hospitals is the compliance department, which did not exist in many hospitals decades ago. The constant monitoring of compliance to all the laws, rules, and regulations that apply to health care providers has added considerable cost to the system, of which most patients and many physicians are unaware. The ideal hospital delivery system would focus on providing top quality care in terms of using whatever was needed to get patients to their desired outcomes; would have much less regulatory load with which to comply; would have a steady and reliable payment source for all patients treated in the hospital; and, under tort reform, would have less malpractice liability.

Payors

Insurance companies and government payors also struggle in the current system. Their focus has been to contain costs, given the steady rise in expense during the last several decades. They attempt to reduce the costs of physician care by enabling more care to be done by less expensive midlevel providers, pushing physicians to agree to contracted rates of payment, and in some cases, establishing rates unilaterally on a “take it or leave it” basis, as done by Medicare and Medicaid. The payors are leaders in utilization review, case management, and pushing the shift from expensive inpatient care toward less costly care on an outpatient basis where feasible. They are in a continuous struggle with patients and employers, who do not want to see a rise in premiums; and with hospitals and physicians, who do not want to see payment rates decrease. In a payer’s dream system, the focus would be on efficient achievement of medical and health outcomes, with payment only when outcomes are achieved. They also would have stringent controls over unnecessary utilization of services by a simple refusal to pay for those services without preauthorization for the necessity. Standard protocols of care for particular conditions would be the norm, and these would be grounded in evidence-based research. Payments to hospitals and physicians would be global in nature, with one payment made to the joint entity, leaving the hospital and physicians to divvy it up. Above all, for the business side of insurance, there would be healthy profit margins for the payer to return to its stockholders.

The Community

The larger community looks at the current system of health care delivery, scratches its collective head, and wonders what is going on. It sees inefficiencies, competing interests, ballooning costs, errors and near-misses, unequal access to care, financial impacts, and controversy about who controls what and how care is delivered. In the community’s ideal system, there would be universal access to health care at an affordable cost, no waste or inefficiency in the system, care would be delivered based on patient needs and expected outcomes, health would be achieved and maintained through prevention activities, and there would be a method of managing the financial aspects of care in a sustainable way, so that all parties are made financially whole, but no one becomes obscenely rich. The cost of care is matched to the community’s available resources and does not exceed them.

Conclusion

As one can see, the various stakeholders in the current system have many overlapping desires and needs, along with some that are directly competing. Anyone who is planning to tackle health care reform and the design of a new and innovative system of care needs to be sure that they have a thorough understanding of the needs, desires, and wishes of all the constituencies. The search for a compromise position that meets some of everyone’s shared needs, without overloading on meeting competing desires, is the Holy Grail of health care system design.

READING

Explore the Preparedness for Healthcare Facilities sections of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s website.

https://www.cdc.gov/phpr/readiness/healthcare/planning.htm

READING

Managing Security and Safety During Disasters

Read “Managing Security and Safety During Disasters” by Huser, from Briefings on Hospital Safety (2015).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=111832630&site=ehost-live&scope=site#.Wq1RZxCK9pk.gmail

MUST HAVE REFERENCE

Critical Thinking

Writing Assignment 7 Prompt

Description: First, this assignment is designed to exercise students’ ability to discern expertise. Using the four criteria of expertise, students will assess given cases where a person’s expertise must be determined so that students are able to meaningfully tell experts from non-experts. Students will also use the criteria of expertise to develop a profile of expertise for a given discipline so that students are experienced in understanding what an ideal expert is for a given field. Second, This assignment is designed to furnish students with the tools required to do research meaningfully and successfully, regardless of topic or proficiency. Using the CRAAP model of criteria for evaluating research sources (Blackboard), students will examine one source of information relating to their final project issue to determine the quality of that information in a research setting. Students will consider what kind of information is best for their topic, find an initially appropriate source, then apply the criteria to understand the quality of information better. In this way, students will gain the ability to justify why using certain information as research is advisable, the strengths and weaknesses of particular information.

Directions:

1. For the following three cases, use the criteria of expertise to determine whether the given person is an expert or not in the given field in which the claim is being made. Each assessment should use all four criteria in a detailed way, and be at least one paragraph long. These are real people and situations, and looking online for information is advised.

a. Dr. Mehmet Oz has firmly claimed that faith-healing is a powerful means to cure a variety of diseases. Given his world-wide recognition, his appearance on television as an expert, his books and products, his standing as a medical doctor (MD from University of Pennsylvania) and professor of surgery and cardiology at Columbia, we should accept his claim that faith-healing is a legitimate medical practice.

b. Cited by Donald Trump for evidence of the dangers of unchecked immigration, Fox News expert, Nils Bildt, a Swedish defense and national security advisor, claimed that crime rates in Sweden have gone up proportionally with relaxed immigration policy. Bildt’s standing as a security expert is verified by broadcast experts at the news organization, who only allowed him on after having verified his credentials.

c. Newly awarded Nobel Prize Economist Richard Thaler recently claimed on PBS that we should be wary of investing in the stock market since it’s not totally clear what is making the market go up, and, hence, unclear what it will do next. His assertion is that it would be wiser to save money rather than risk it, especially for those who have little expendable income to invest or save. Thaler made these claims as an expert in economics, holding a professorship at the University of Chicago, a PhD in economics from Rochester, and a variety of important, leading publications in his field.

2. For the following two fields of knowledge, professions, or disciplines, choose, one, then use the criteria of expertise to hypothetically develop of profile of what characteristics an expert in the chosen field should have in order to be a legitimate expert in that field. I am providing a broad field, and then possibilities of specific positions in that field for your to choose one from. The profile should use all four criteria in a detailed way, and be at least one paragraph long.

a. Journalism/Journalist: a column writer on education policy, a news anchor, a war correspondent.

b. Sciences/Scientist: a professor of astronomy, a researcher on vaccines, a climatologist.

3. Consider your final project issue (pick one of the two issues for this) and what kind of information is produced regarding that issue. Things like books, news articles, media reports, expert analysis, scholarly journal entries, scientific studies, government studies, textbooks, legal cases and rulings, laws, etc., should all be taken into consideration. Locate (library, internet, media, etc.) one item of information which you initially believe to be relevant to your issue. Whether or not the item supports your stance is irrelevant. What matters is that your assessment is accurate and fruitful, not whether the source, after assessment, is perfect or imperfect. Using the CRAAP model of criteria, assess your chosen source of information. In one paragraph, describe the results. Would you say that the source is good or bad, according to which criteria?
When do we accept a claim as true? What conditions need to be met? It is specific to disciplines and the claim itself (what it is about and the best methods for approaching that ‘what’); other disciplines should be focusing on what makes true claims true regarding their object of analysis; critical thinking is more interested in reasoning in general (as a feature of being a psychological and sociological human in this world) and the proper form of argumentation (logic).

-Add these basic principles/rules to the list:

1.) If a claim conflicts with other claims we already have good reason to believe, then we have one good reason to doubt or reject that initial claim.

2.) If a claim conflicts with our background information, then we have one good reason to doubt or reject that initial claim.

3.) Personal/Direct experience can reasonably stand as evidence, but only if there is no good reason to doubt its accuracy or legitimacy.

4.) If a claim conflicts with expert claims, then we have one good reason to doubt that initial claim.

-We can say some general things about reasons to believe, regardless of the ‘what’. From the most basic vantage point, there are some common sources of justification worth brining up: personal/direct experience, memory, and others.

-Personal/Direct experience involves sensation, memory, and judgments. Each of these are completely flawed, so experience can only go so far as a source of justification. First, our experiences–even if accurate–are terribly limited, so there is a pretty small range of justification from this source. Second, our personal experiences aren’t immediate sources of objectivity. Third, our intuitions, gut reactions, and common sense are not only fallible, but incredibly complex products of centuries or more of tradition. We experience things more simply than they are.

-Sensation and perception are themselves limited and imperfect. Perception requires the proper conditions, requiring a kind of Goldilocks zone of input. It is also easily

swayed by our ideas (in interpretation) and the power of suggestion. Sensation is unreliable as a source of knowledge when the following impairments are in place: illness, fatigue, injury, stress, excitement, distraction, disorientation.

-Our minds, in interpreting sensations, easily make mistakes based on our expectations, innumeracy, and biases to resist contrary evidence, look for confirming evidence, and prefer available evidence. Recall all the the problems referred to in our discussions of barriers to critical thinking.

-Memory itself is based on imperfect experiences, and can only intensify those imperfections rather than improve on them. Memory is not a replica of an objective sensation, but an imperfect copy (a construction, even) of an imperfect interpretation of a maybe legitimate sensation of some thing out there in the word. There’s a great deal that can go wrong here; assuming otherwise is not critical thinking. False memory syndrome is prevalent and studies increasingly show its regular effect in normal life. We can fall to false memory syndrome by our own lack of self-analysis, our biases, language and tradition (car crash words), and the suggestion of others (the hammer suggestion). Memories change.

-Other people are obviously a major source of information to us. It is essential that we have some tools to tell when that information is reliable and when it isn’t without guessing or resting on biases. Hearsay and anecdotal evidence are to be disregarded generally. Neither has a history of success. Hearsay degrades with each repetition, and is based on an already unreliable personal experience. Anecdotal evidence has all of the problems referred to above. Studies show that eyewitness testimony of identifications of suspects are correct about 50% of the time.

-The safest way to deal with claims that come from other people is to determine who is an expert and who is not. For any given claim, there should be a group of experts regarding the type of thinking, observing, and understanding that the claim operates in. Define expertise broadly: an expert is one who is more knowledgeable in a given field than the average person. This low bar importantly disqualifies below average and average from consideration. From here, it is a matter of determining the kind of expert one would require in order to confirm/disconfirm the given claim, which will vary based

on the specifics of the claim. Experts have an advantage over others for two reasons: they have access to more information and they know how to judge that information better than others. Experts are an essential feature of human civilization. The division of labor allows us to make advancements we otherwise would not have been able to make. Specialized knowledge disseminates to average understanding with time, which benefits all.

-Making sure we don’t fall for appeal to authority fallacies is crucial. Don’t take people who occupy positions of power to be experts for that reason. Don’t allow experts in one field to be taken as experts in other fields. This is very difficult, since we are in a naturally vulnerable position regarding experts: we need them, but cannot easily determine whether their claims are true or false in the way they can. Since we cannot simply verify their claims in a straightforward way, and we should not be satisfied with guessing or going off of intuitions, we need criteria to determine an expert from a non-expert in a non-arbitrary way, but also a way that everyone can use regardless of their expertise.

-Experts are experts because they meet the following four criteria of expertise in satisfying ways. Generally, more is better on these criteria. The more fully a person meets

these criteria in a given field, the more of an expert they are. Context matters here.

1.) Education or training from a reputable, relevant institution.

2.) Experience in making reliable judgments in their field.

3.) Positive reputation among peers (other experts in that field).

4.) Professional accomplishments in the field.

Since we don’t have the specialized knowledge and skills required to tell if an expert is a proper expert or not, we must use these criteria as evidence of expertise itself. When determining whether we should accept the claim of a person, the question is whether they are an expert in that field or not. The first reason to accept the claim is that they are an expert. The second reason that justifies the first is the evidence that they meet these criteria. If I ask, “Why are you taking that supposed expert’s claims to be true?” the only acceptable answer is providing evidence of their meeting these four criteria as much as possible. This is a non-expert’s argument for using the claims of expertise, without appealing to biases, fallacies, or intuitions.

-When it comes to expert claims, proportion belief to the evidence. If experts disagree regarding a claim, proportion belief accordingly. If the disagreement is proportionally equal, remain skeptical and take no hard stance until the matter is resolved.
CRAAP​ ​Criteria​ ​for​ ​Evaluating​ ​Research Currency​:​ ​Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​properly​ ​current?

● When​ ​was​ ​the​ ​information​ ​published,​ ​posted,​ ​gathered,​ ​or​ ​created? ● Has​ ​the​ ​information​ ​been​ ​revised​ ​or​ ​updated? ● Does​ ​your​ ​topic​ ​require​ ​current​ ​information,​ ​or​ ​will​ ​older​ ​sources​ ​work? ● Are​ ​any​ ​web-links​ ​functional?

Relevance​:​ ​Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​specifically​ ​valuable​ ​to​ ​your​ ​needs?

● Does​ ​the​ ​information​ ​closely​ ​relate​ ​to​ ​your​ ​topic​ ​or​ ​answer​ ​your​ ​question? ● Who​ ​is​ ​the​ ​intended​ ​audience? ● Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​presented​ ​at​ ​an​ ​appropriate​ ​level? ● Have​ ​you​ ​looked​ ​at​ ​a​ ​variety​ ​of​ ​sources​ ​before​ ​deciding​ ​on​ ​this​ ​one? ● Does​ ​it​ ​seem​ ​appropriate​ ​to​ ​cite​ ​this​ ​source?

Authority​:​ ​Does​ ​the​ ​information​ ​come​ ​from​ ​proper​ ​expertise?

● Who​ ​is​ ​the​ ​author,​ ​publisher,​ ​source,​ ​or​ ​sponsor? ● What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​the​ ​author’s,​ ​authors’,​ ​or​ ​organization’s​ ​credentials? ● What​ ​affiliations​ ​does​ ​the​ ​source​ ​have? ● Is​ ​the​ ​author​ ​qualified​ ​regarding​ ​this​ ​topic? ● Is​ ​there​ ​sufficient​ ​contact​ ​information​ ​available​ ​from​ ​the​ ​research? ● What​ ​do​ ​any​ ​URLs​ ​indicate?​ ​(.edu,​ ​.gov,​ ​.org,​ ​.com)

Accuracy​:​ ​Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​reliable,​ ​truthful,​ ​correct?

● Where​ ​does​ ​it​ ​come​ ​from? ● Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​supported​ ​by​ ​evidence? ● Has​ ​the​ ​information​ ​been​ ​reviewed​ ​or​ ​refereed? ● Can​ ​you​ ​verify​ ​any​ ​of​ ​the​ ​information​ ​in​ ​another​ ​source​ ​or​ ​from​ ​personal​ ​knowledge? ● Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​presented​ ​in​ ​way​ ​that​ ​is​ ​free​ ​of​ ​fallacies,​ ​rhetoric,​ ​bias,​ ​emotion,​ ​etc.? ● Are​ ​there​ ​compositional​ ​errors​ ​in​ ​the​ ​writing?

Purpose​:​ ​Why​ ​does​ ​the​ ​information​ ​exist​ ​in​ ​the​ ​first​ ​place?

● Is​ ​the​ ​purpose​ ​to​ ​inform,​ ​teach,​ ​sell,​ ​entertain,​ ​persuade,​ ​etc.? ● Do​ ​the​ ​authors​ ​or​ ​sponsors​ ​make​ ​their​ ​intentions​ ​clear? ● Is​ ​the​ ​information​ ​fact,​ ​opinion,​ ​propaganda,​ ​etc.? ● Does​ ​the​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​appear​ ​objective​ ​and​ ​impartial? ● Are​ ​there​ ​political,​ ​institutional,​ ​ideological,​ ​cultural,​ ​or​ ​personal​ ​biases?
The issue that I would like to work on is the issue of poverty.

Poverty is a global issue affecting millions of people around the world. It has been the cause of

concern for many people because poverty leads to other dangerous issues that may affect

humanity, human lives and human values. Poverty is prevalent all over the world because of the

poor economic structure of countries, poor resources and also because of illiteracy. The other

reason for poverty is simple laziness of people because they do not want to work, or they may

not have skills to earn money to make a living for themselves. It is a potentially dangerous issue

and it need to be solved.

Poverty matters a lot in today’s world because poverty leads to other issues, such as increase of

crimes, malnourishment in children, early deaths of children, terrorism, social conflicts and

tensions among people. Poverty also can lead to another main issue of homelessness. It matters a

lot for everyone, people who are poor and people who are not so poor, and countries that are

poorly developed and countries that are well-developed because poverty may also lead to

increase in immigration and this immigration may become a world issue.

Poverty also creates a burden on the economy of the country. The healthcare field may be

affected because poor people may suffer from many diseases and they would need treatment.

They may not be able to pay for their treatment and the overall burden of healthcare would come

on the government healthcare institutions. Poverty is not a problem of a single individual, but it

is a problem of a community and a problem of the nation. People may think that poverty is a

chosen “problem,” but this is not the case. Sometimes the economic situations in a country and

the prevalent corruption and unemployment may become the cause of poverty.

The best solution to the problem would be globalization and global help. The poor countries have

to be helped by the richer countries. The solutions should not be like donating money and

feeding for a day, but the root causes have to be identified and they have to be dealt with to deal

with the issue of poverty right from its roots.

Poverty is a global issue and there are many causes behind poverty, and at the same time there

are serious consequences because of poverty so some solutions are essential and the help from

the richer and developed countries is a welcome thought and a necessary one. This essay argues

that poverty is the problem of countries and communities, and therefore the root causes of this

problem have to be identified to eradicate it completely.

Second Issue

The issue I would like to work on is the issue of homelessness.

The problem of homelessness is an important social and communal problem because it can lead

to different other problems of increase in crime, poor humanistic values and a total downfall of

humanity. People who are homeless may suffer from psychological problems, and may harm

themselves and others around them. Homeless people may also suffer from diseases due to lack

of the essential amenities of life. Many people may think that homelessness is because of the

individuals and not because of the community or country, but I would say that homelessness is

indeed a problem of the community and country and they have to take a combined blame for the

same.

My stance is that homelessness can be eradicated and people living without homes can be given

a chance of decent living. The best solution to the problem is that the governments should create

jobs and residential hostels for the homeless. The jobs can be everyday jobs, such as printing,

cooking foods, and even ironing and washing clothes. These mundane jobs also generate big

money, and this would help the homeless to earn for themselves and also get a permanent shelter

over their heads.

Homelessness is a severe issue, and it is essential that it be considered as a global issue and

appropriate measures should be taken by the governments to deal with the problem of

homelessness and strike it out right from our world’s history. It will not be easier to deal with

homelessness, but it will not be impossible. The people with homes and luxuries should come

forward philanthropically to help the homeless and provide them with shelter and the other

necessities of life and give them a chance to live a normal and happy life.

Midterm part 2

Poverty I) The issue is poverty and how it must be eradicated. II) My stance is that richer nations need to help and simple charity is not good enough. In my humble opinion, poverty should not be seen as a problem specific to a country or area. It should be treated as a collective problem. The globalization and global help is the best way to deal the issue of poverty. III) Poverty is menace that exists today not just in underdeveloped and developing countries but has been steadily increasing in the developed parts of the world. But due to the severity of poverty and lack of resources is poorer countries of the world, where HDI is too low, it is important to embrace the culture of globalization and the resources must be mobilized so that poorer and weaker sections of the society can too become self reliant and dependent. IV) The countries like India, China, two of the most populated countries of the world, were extremely poor till the last decade of twentieth century, but after these countries adopted trade and business policies of liberalization, the countries witnessed massive economic growth and rapid business explosion. The liberalization policies are the first step towards globalization as it allows free flow of goods, capital and resources; the quintessential feature of globalization. V) Foreign aid to poorer countries can never eradicate poverty completely, it is wise investment in fundamental aspects of life like education, health care and change of attitude can bring those unfortunate souls out of poverty. This is achievable through globalization as setting up a business or industry creates an entire ecosystem of various other ancillary services and activities, thus it leads to facelift of an entire area caused by the ripple effect of establishing business. VI) The opposite stance of mine is that globalization can create a new set of problems and issues in the developed parts of the world. As the work is getting increasingly outsourced to such regions where the human labor is low, the people in developed economies are experiencing shortfall in the employment opportunities. Thus, globalization can result in poverty and homelessness in developed parts of the world. Homelessness I) The issue is homelessness and how to eradicate it from the society. II) My stance is that homelessness should certainly be treated as a serious issue and the issue must be solved on a collective basis, as society should come forward and take adequate steps to come with remedial solutions to combat homelessness. III) People who are homeless are at a higher risk of developing psychological disorders as well physical health issues due to their unclean and unhygienic state of their body and their surroundings. Such people are can easily succumb to their irrational part of thinking and can

indulge in unethical activities and serious crimes like theft, robbery, sexual harassment, murder etc. Thus, the common citizens of the society are also at greater risk of experiencing violent incidents like such. IV) Incidences of Homelessness can be avoided or mitigated if government takes adequate steps to provide affordable housing for all; something akin to ‘Obamacare’ that aimed at providing medical assistance to all. By employing them even in mundane activities like cooking, cleaning or printing, they would be preoccupied with work, that would not only make them financially sound to some extent, but they can start thinking about possibilities of their future, Often it is seen that homeless people live without any purpose and concern about their future, but giving them an opportunity to think so, can actually pull them out from the state of homelessness. V) Another solution to keep homelessness is at bay is by sharing accommodation and co-living, that has emerged as a new concept. Many people work at night and need a place to rest in the morning and on the other hand, some people work during day but need a shelter at night, hence, housing (viewed as a resource) can be pooled to minimize cost and maximize utility from the same space/shelter. VI). The opposite stance of mine is that by picking up a collective approach, there society would have to handle additional burden. The hard earned money that members of the society pay as tax, would get heavily allocated towards providing shelter and assistance to homeless people. This would create an additional pressure on the federal annual budget allocation, thus eventually the tax burden on common tax-paying citizen would rise. Furthermore, the concept of shared accommodation would lead to invasion of privacy and at times, can become intrusive in nature.