The muscle that body builders refer to as the six-pack is the

The muscle that body builders refer to as the six-pack is the

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Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question.

 

 

 

Question 1 (1 point)

 

The muscle that body builders refer to as the six-pack is the

 

Question 1 options:

  Abdomial Obliques
  Rectus Abducens
  Rectus Femoris
  Rectus Abdominus

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Question 2 (1 point)

 

Question 2 options:

Inorganic ions released through the dissociation of electrolytes that are essential for proper muscle contraction and electrolyte balance are called

minerals.

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Question 3 (1 point)

 

Question 3 options:

While hypoxia is present, the kidneys secrete

Erythropoietinto stimulate erythrocyte production

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Question 4 (1 point)

 

Question 4 options:

A deterioration of the frontal lobes and occipital lobes of the brain is known as disease

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Question 5 (1 point)

 

Question 5 options:

Treatment with antibiotic drugs that interfere with the intestinal bacteria is sometimes followed by a deficiency of vitamin.

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Question 6 (1 point)

 

Question 6 options:

The PAP smear is a technique used to detect.

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Question 7 (1 point)

 

Question 7 options:

The destruction of alveoli due to age or by respiratory irritants is called.

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Question 8 (1 point)

 

Question 8 options:

The ability of a muscle to recover after injury

with age

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Question 9 (5 points)

 

Match “term definitions” to appropriate “terms”

 

Question 9 options:

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perception
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projection
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adaptation
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sensation
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special sense

 

1. the sensation being felt where the receptors are stimulated
2. the conscious awareness of what is being stimulated
3. reducing the amount of information arriving at the cortex
4. eyesight, hearing

 

5. the feeling we have after impulses are translated

 

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Question 10 (3 points)

 

Match term definitions to the appropriate term

 

Question 10 options:

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Secretin
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Cholecystokinin
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Gastrin

 

1. Stimulates bile release
2. Stimulates gastric juice release
3. Stimulates buffer release from the pancreas

 

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Question 11 (5 points)

 

Match “term definitions” to appropriate “terms”

 

Question 11 options:

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AV node
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AV bundle
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  Purkinje fibers
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Bundle branches
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SA node

 

1. Natural pacemaker of the heart
2. Causes delay in electrical impulse before ventricular contraction
3. Contains conduction cells leading to the AV bundle
4. Mass of conducting fibers
5. Two sets of conducting fibers, one to each side of the heart

 

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Question 12 (5 points)

 

Match “term definitions” to appropriate “terms”

 

Question 12 options:

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T-cell
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Cell mediate immunity
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B-cell
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Antibody-mediated immunity
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 NK cells

 

1. Plasma cell from the bone marrow
2. Cell that matures in the thymus
3. B cell produced antibodies provide protection
4. T cells directly attack pathogens
5. Cells that provide immunological surveillance

 

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Question 13 (5 points)

 

Match “term definitions” to appropriate “terms”

 

Question 13 options:

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Calcitonin
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Oxytocin
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PTH
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ADH
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Melatonin

 

1. Stimulates osteoclasts to reabsorb releasing calcium
2. Stimulates the kidneys to retain water
3. Produced by the pineal gland
4. Stimulates the osteoblasts to store excess calcium in bone
5. Stimulates the smooth muscle of the uterus

 

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Question 14 (1 point)

 

Bill was experiencing chest pain every time he climbed a flight of stairs. He went to his doctor who did a(an) ____ and discovered _____ in one of his coronary arteries. The doctor recommended a procedure called ___. This would prevent further ____ and help Bill avoid a ____ infarction, or heart attack, in the future.

 

Question 14 options:

  Myelogram, atherosclerosis, thoracocentesis, ischemia, vascular
  Angiogram, atherosclerosis, angioplasty, ischemia, myocardial
  Angiogram, atherosclerosis, thoracocentesis, ischemia, vascular
  Dialysis, atherosclerosis, angioplasty, ischemia, myocardial

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Question 15 (1 point)

 

A person who was involved in a car accident is now complaining of severe pain in the left upper quadrant (LUQ). This person most likely has

 

Question 15 options:

  pancreatitis
  indigestion
  ruptured spleen
  appendicitis

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Question 16 (1 point)

 

The system most directly affected by the secretion of epinephrine for blood pressure adjustments is the

 

 

Question 16 options:

  respiratory
  cardiovascular

 

  urinary

 

  endocrine

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Question 17 (1 point)

 

Which of the following is the most apt to happen when fatty acids are broken down rapidly and incompletely?

 

Question 17 options:

  plasma pH increases

 

  the patient hypoventilates in an attempt to correct the pH disturbance

 

  ketoacids are produced causing metabolic acidosis

 

  plasma concentration of hydrogen ions increases

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Question 18 (1 point)

 

Which of the following is the most apt to happen when fatty acids are broken down rapidly and incompletely?

 

Question 18 options:

  plasma pH increases

 

  the patient hypoventilates in an attempt to correct the pH disturbance

 

  ketoacids are produced causing metabolic acidosis

 

  plasma concentration of hydrogen ions increases

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Question 19 (1 point)

 

In the epiphyseal plate region (known as the growth plate) osteoblasts replace cartilage with bone on the ___ while new cartilage is produced on the

 

Question 19 options:

  side closest to the diaphysis, side farthest from the diaphysis

 

  side closest to the joint, side farthest from the shaft

 

  side farthest from the diaphysis, side closest to the diaphysis

 

  side closest to the proximal bone, side closest to the shaft

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Question 20 (1 point)

 

Within minutes of a bee sting, a 23-year old woman develops generalized pruritus and hyperemia of the skin, followed shortly by swelling of the face and eyelids, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema. This reaction is mediated by

 

Question 20 options:

  antigen-antibody complexes

 

  cytotoxic T cells

 

  Ig E antibodies

 

  Ig A antibodies

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Question 21 (1 point)

 

Exposure to heavy metals such as lead and arsenic may cause ____ of an axon.

 

Question 21 options:

  Denaturation
  Deactivation
  Deceleration
   

Demyelination

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Question 22 (5 points)

 

What is an Apgar rating? Why is it used?

 

Question 22 options:

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Question 23 (5 points)

 

Norma’s arm and legs are badly scratched after a fall during a hiking trip. To prevent infections from developing, her physician uses an antiseptic on her wounds before bandaging them. Why did not the physician use a disinfectant on the wounds?

 

Question 23 options:

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Question 24 (5 points)

 

How does ultraviolet radiation in sunlight affect the epidermis? Discuss briefly both positive and negative effects.

 

Question 24 options:

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Question 25 (5 points)

 

What are bunions? Would you expect them to be more common in men or women? Explain your answer.

 

Question 25 options:

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Question 26 (5 points)

 

What are the effects of aging on the muscular system?

 

Question 26 options:

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Question 27 (10 points)

 

Each essay question is worth 10 points. Response should be at least 150 words long. Sentences should be well developed, show logical and independent critical thinking, understanding of the concepts and their application to provided case studies/scenarios. Answers should be written in your own words.

 

Question 27 options:

1. Michael is a thirty year old salesman who spends approximately 4 days each week traveling to visit with customers in his region. During his routine physical he casually mentions to his physician that he seems to be sweating more profusely than normal and most rooms that once were comfortable are now too “hot”. Michael also reports that he seems to be losing weight even though his appetite has increased. He also complains that he has a shortened attention span and that he always wants to be moving around. Despite the fact that he feels fatigued, Michael claims to have difficulty sleeping and seems to have more frequent bowel movements, occasionally accompanied by diarrhea. The physician checks Michael’s medical history and finds that indeed he has lost 15 pounds since his last physical.

Results of Michael’s physical examination and tests performed by endocrinologist concluded that Michael had Grave’s disease, a form of hyperthyroidism believed to be autoimmune in nature. Michael was presented with a number of possible treatment options. After considering all the options, especially the possible effects of radiation on gamete development, Michael chose surgical removal of the thyroid gland. Following successful surgery, Michael was prescribed synthetic thyroid hormone to ensure that his body was receiving adequate thyroid hormone and told to return within 2 months for a follow-up evaluation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations. He was also cautioned to carefully monitor his calcium intake.

a. Thyroid hormones exert their effects on cells in a manner similar to steroid hormones; describe the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones.

b.Why would an imbalance in thyroid hormones have such widespread effects on the body?

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Question 28 (10 points)

 

Charlie is badly burned in a fireworks accident on the Fourth of July. When he reaches the emergency room, the examining physician determines the severity of the incident as a third-degree burn.

a.What therapeutic measures is the physician likely to recommend?

b.What are the major concerns with third-degree burns?Why?

c. Are third-degree burns more or less painful than the second-degree burns? Explain.

 

Question 28 options:

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Question 29 (10 points)

 

E.M.S. went to bed about 11 PM after a busy evening of entertaining friends and family. He was awakened at 2 AM with chest pain that radiated to his left shoulder, arm and fingers. His son took him to the emergency room, where he was immediately given oxygen by mask and nitroglycerin. His chest pain was relieved in about 39 minutes. An ECG revealed evidence of myocardial ischemia but no evidence of a myocardial infarction. He was admitted to the cardiac intensive unit for further evaluation.

a. What’s the most likely cause of the pain (what’s the name of the condition and what causes it)?

b. What kind of medication is nitroglycerin and why does it help to relieve the pain? What are other treatment options for this condition?

c. Define the underlined terms.

 

Question 29 options:

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