A negative event, such as a formal reprimand or a reduction in wages, administered after undesirable behavior occurs is known as
A. a negative reinforcer.
B. effective reinforcer.
Which of the following terms best describes the process through which we limit our interactions with someone else so that our prior judgment of that person isn’t contradicted?
A. Internal attribution
D. Self-serving bias
3. Joseph forms an unfavorable impression of his new supervisor because she used to work at a company that researched genetically modified seeds. This sort of bias is known as
A. the horn effect.
B. the halo effect.
C. self-serving bias.
D. self-justification bias.
4. Marco consistently accepts credit for success and rejects blame for mistakes or failures. This tendency is known as
A. the halo effect.
B. external attribution.
C. self-serving bias.
D. the horn effect.
Employees who want to please others, engage more actively in dialogue, and prefer to make friends with work partners are, according to McClelland, motivated by a need for
6. After three years in the same position, Juanita feels exhausted, powerless, cynical, and disengaged from her organization. She is experiencing what is known as
A. job burnout.
B. Type A dissatisfaction.
C. role conflict.
D. work overload.
7. The _______ describes a tendency to use one characteristic to create a positive impression that dominates other information.
A. horn effect
B. halo effect
D. self-serving bias
8. Ingrid was aware that stress in the workplace had economic costs, but she was shocked to learn in a recent report that job stress alone cost U.S. businesses more than _______ a year due to absenteeism, lower productivity, employee turnover, and medical, legal, and insurance costs.
A. $40 billion
B. $300 million
C. $400 million
D. $300 billion
9. The _______ theory recommends providing an organizational environment and response patterns that reward and encourage desirable behaviors while discouraging or punishing undesirable ones.
D. goal setting
10. In some situations, employees who are expected to succeed are given more challenging tasks, more frequent and positive feedback, and more active coaching, with the result that they do succeed. This form of perceptual bias is known as the
A. similar-to-me effect.
B. horn effect.
C. actor-observer difference.
D. Pygmalion effect.
11. Psychologist Frederick Herzberg proposed a two-factor model of human needs. Which of the following is used in this model to describe the higher-level needs?
A. Achievement factors
B. Hygiene factors
C. Motivating factors
D. Extrinsic factors
12. When interviewing a potential employee, managers may need to decide whether the person has real talent and potential or is simply well prepared for the interview. What processes is the manager using in this case?
A. Internal and external attribution
B. Retrieval and judgment
C. Attention and retention
D. Attention and organization
13. PERMA and positive psychology rely on the concept that our _______ of a situation influences whether or not we will experience it as stressful.
A. ethical assessment
B. emotional evaluation
C. cognitive appraisal
D. intuitive awareness
14. Victor notices that one of the employees he manages tends to perform better when working on moderately difficult tasks and wants a lot of feedback on her work. According to McClelland’s needs theory framework, this employee is most likely motivated by a need for
15. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, at which level are shelter and employment most important?
16. In applying expectancy theory to her role as a manger in the communications department of a broadcast network television company, Kelli understands that, in addition to expectancy and instrumentality, two other important factors affect motivation. These factors are
A. performance and value of outcome.
B. effort and performance.
C. life stage and values.
D. ability and role clarity.
17. When Gabrielle warns one of the employees that she manages that she will be formally reprimanded or possibly receive a reduction in pay if that employee continues to be late for work, she is using a _______ reinforcer.
18. Because some stress arises from the nature of the work itself, a manager may choose to adjust tasks to better suit a worker’s needs and abilities. This type of organizational strategy is known as
A. employee engagement.
B. burnout prevention.
C. job redesign.
D. workload balance.
19. The process of letting some information in while keeping out the rest is called
A. a schema.
D. a perceptual filter.
20. In designing SMART goals associated with tasks that the employees she manages will perform, Jeanette realizes that the goals must be specific and
Lesson Name: Fostering Creativity and Innovation; Decision Making
1. After working on a creative problem for a while, Dave decides to just let it go and head down to the company cafeteria for a cup of coffee. As he heads back to his office, he suddenly stops and whispers, “Yes, that’s it!” What stage of the creative process has just occurred?
2. When a person in authority identifies an important issue and carries out a process to make a choice that produces outcomes with consequences, that person is engaging in
B. problem solving.
C. decision debacles.
D. organizational decision making
3. Central versus business unit bottlenecks typically involve ambiguity regarding
A. policy decisions.
B. global versus local impacts.
C. internal versus external accountability.
D. whether a single specialist or a team should be involved in the decision.
4. As they reach the _______ phase of the rational model of the decision-making process, Juanita and her team crystalize options for resolving the situation.
5. Michele is the type of leader who shares the problem with subordinates in a group meeting to obtain their ideas and suggestions, and then makes a decision that may or may not reflect their input. Her leadership style would be considered
6. As a human resources manager, Michelle recognizes that fostering high levels of involvement and engagement across cultural, racial, and ethnic groups actually increases
A. external incentives and rewards.
C. extrinsic motivation.
7. Patrice decides to use an idea box as a technique for finding a creative solution. The first step she needs to implement is to
A. develop options or variables.
B. identify the parameters of the problem.
C. specify the purpose she is trying to accomplish.
D. test different combinations of variables.
8. Excited by the prospect of being involved in a _______ process of decision making, Michael comes to realize that the decision involves much negotiating and many compromises among team members with competing interests and priorities.
A. garbage can
9. Though not necessarily consciously, Ron delegates unethical decisions to other people in his organization. This approach to decision making is referred to as
A. indirect blindness.
B. blind delegation.
C. plausible deniability.
D. motivated blindness.
10. A decision-making phenomenon known as _______ occurs when members of a tightly cohesive group refrain from proposing alternative solutions because they’re overly concerned with maintaining unanimity.
A. Group behavior
B. Group bonding
D. Group decisions
11. _______ thinking occurs when a problem is defined in a single way until a solution is reached.
12. During the _______ phase of the rational model of the decision-making process, Taylor evaluates alternatives and selects the one that best solves the problem.
13. Broadly defined, _______ is the generation of new and useful ideas.
A. decision making
14. The main point of _______ is to increase thinking creatively and generating solutions by prohibiting criticism.
C. the nominal group technique
D. focus groups
15. The _______ stage of the creative process is essentially a choice to engage in and commit to solving a problem.
16. Donald is the type of leader who makes decisions on his own, based on information that he has and without any input from others. His decision-making style would be considered
17. “Okay, what’s the problem here? What do I need to know? What needs to be done?” These sorts of questions are all part of the _______ stage of the creative process.
18. After gathering all the facts and other sorts of input related to a decision, Angelina performs a _______ analysis, which will assess the costs and benefits of implementing a solution in strictly monetary terms.
19. In which model of decision making are complex, multilevel problems addressed rather than a single strategic issue?
C. Garbage Can
20. _______ is the successful implementation of new and useful ideas.
A. Cognitive process
C. Linear phase
Lesson Name: Communicating Effectively; Working in Groups and Teams
1. The process of deciphering the meaning of a message is formally referred to as
2. The goal of counseling and coaching is to
A. offer suggestions for working out personal problems.
B. address work-related problems before they get worse.
C. motivate an employee to seek another job outside of the organization.
D. administer a reprimand.
3. The accumulated attitudes, beliefs, values, and other factors that shape our perceptions and interpretations of our communications with others are collectively known as
B. extrinsic biases.
C. frames of reference.
D. intrinsic motivations.
4. Because he has several conflicting goals, Stuart chooses the words and phrasing that could be understood in a variety of ways in a memo he sends to several department heads. In this case, his communication is
A. strategically ambiguous.
B. unintentionally vague.
C. grammatically imprecise.
D. intentionally provocative
5. The most important element of persuasive communication is
C. a soft-sell approach.
6. _______ involves not just transmitting information, but also developing interpersonal relationships by giving people the chance to express and accept differences in how they feel.
B. Active listening
C. Setting meeting agendas
D. Supportive communication
7. Which of the six Cs of effective managerial writing involves putting yourself in the reader’s position, writing in an active voice, and using the positive form of writing?
8. Typically, a _______ team functions as long as it’s needed to solve a particular problem, after which it’s adjourned.
9. _______ are characterized by a high degree of interdependence geared towards the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task.
10. The process of dialogue is intended to achieve
C. rejection of authority.
D. establishment of authority
11. Self-leadership within teams means that
A. team members must focus on narrow exchange relationships.
B. they ignore conflict among different team members.
C. they inspire commitment while discouraging independent thinking.
D. individual team members must be trained and encouraged to make their own decisions
12. Although some _______ aren’t explicitly or formally stated, they become painfully obvious when a team member unwittingly violates them.
13. _______ in managerial writing focuses on using correct grammar and composition, and following the technical rules of writing, including spelling and punctuation.
14. The process of formulating the intended meaning of a message is known as
15. In many cases, organizations will assign a team to solve a problem when
A. performance doesn’t require multiple skill sets.
B. time is limited.
C. the task is complex.
D. individual commitment isn’t essential.
16. One of the ways Francesca builds cohesiveness in the team she’s managing involves
A. imposing a clear hierarchy within the team.
B. rewarding competition among team members.
C. increasing the size of the team.
D. providing competition with outside groups.
17. During a meeting, Laura asks how the team is going to track and communicate progress and how feedback is going to be conveyed to team members. These types of questions are associated with the _______ stage of team development.
18. _______ is a type of deviance that is tolerated because central norms are accepted, even though peripheral ones may not be observed.
A. Subversive rebellion
B. Open revolution
C. Social loafing
D. Creative individualism
19. In order to address concerns related to low levels of participation, _______ teams typically set expectations for future outputs and processes during their very first session.
B. top management
20. One of the disadvantages of team cohesion involves
A. shifting focus to the goals of the team rather than the organization.
B. tolerance of a certain level of conflict.
C. proposing solutions that involve some element of risk or uncertainty.
D. the development of strong norms and culture.
Lesson Name: Managing Conflict and Negotiation; Leadership
1. As Marcia learns more about authentic leadership, she discovers that one of the characteristics that defines authentic leaders is the ability to disclose and share information about themselves appropriately, a capacity referenced to as
B. personal conviction.
C. relational authenticity.
2. The seven members of a project team are constantly arguing over goals and procedures, threatening a breakdown in the team’s cohesiveness. This kind of conflict is referred to as
3. _______ is a source of organizational conflict because it calls into question accepted practices and procedures, opening the door for disagreement related to both goals and processes.
A. Goal incompatibility
B. Resource scarcity
4. After studying the biographies of several world leaders, Saul realizes that a potential leader must understand a group and find ways to _______ it.
5. _______ can be a source of organizational conflict in the case of workers in different shifts disagreeing about work procedures, documentation, and organization of the workspace they share.
B. Goal incompatibility
C. Resource allocation
D. Resource scarcity
6. The term _______ refers not only to knowing the right course of action, but also to being able to pursue that course, even under pressure not to do so.
C. moral compass
7. A pharmaceutical company has just lost a major source of grant funding and is forced to scale back plans for purchasing new equipment and other supplies. This situation, known as _______, can be a major source of organizational conflict between different departments.
A. goal incompatibility
C. resource scarcity
8. The _______ approach to managing conflict addresses the roots of the conflict by focusing on emotions, beliefs, and behaviors.
9. To be creative, leaders need a sense of _______ or passion that drives them in a singular direction.
10. According to Bernard Bass, the _______ leader exchanges rewards for services rendered so as to improve subordinates’ job performance.
11. _______ leadership advances the interests of both leader and follower, but there is no deep or enduring link between them.
12. _______ involves not only a developed sense of ethical awareness, but also the visionary ability to promote a moral process and result.
A. Moral ingenuity
B. Ethical imagination
C. Moral integrity
D. Moral imagination
13. _______ is a process whereby two or more parties reach a mutually agreeable arrangement.
14. Which is the best conflict management style to use when the issues are complex and require input and information from others, and when commitment is needed?
15. Treating others with dignity and respect describes the _______ orientation of ethical leadership.
A. responsibility and sustainability
16. _______ is an aggressive win-lose strategy negotiators adopt when managers concentrate on imposing their own solution and are willing to sacrifice maintaining relationships.
A. Firm competition
B. Open subordination
C. Active avoidance
D. Trusting collaboration
17. The ability of a leader to consider multiple perspectives and inputs, and to assess information in a balanced way is known as
C. unbiased processing.
18. Reviewing the results of the Ohio State University study on leadership behavior, Alessandra discovers that the term consideration refers to
A. the extent to which the leader is concerned with the welfare of the group.
B. the exercise of initiative in social situations.
C. a capacity to absorb stress.
D. a strong sense of personal identity.
19. As annual budget negotiations loom, several departments within a product manufacturing company are involved in _______ conflict over resource allocations, because each wants a larger share than the other.
20. _______ is the rivalry between individuals or groups over an outcome and always has a winner and a loser.
Lesson Name: Organizational Context
1. According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, structural characteristics of organizations that perpetuate powerlessness tend to
A. increase compliance, but not commitment.
B. compel changes in reward and recognition structures.
C. increase productivity in hopes of gaining more power.
D. result in counterproductive behavior.
2. As the CEO of a broadcast television network, Leslie’s power is derived primarily from the authority associated with his title or official position. Which source of power does this authority represent?
3. _______ power may be considered a “two-way street,” in that supervisors can punish subordinates by reducing pay or giving poor performance reviews, while employees can punish their supervisors by refusing work assignments or withholding crucial information.
4. _______ changes involve middle-level and supervisory-level managers, as well as workers on the front line of the organization.
5. The social and physical environment, physical layout, technological preferences, typical language patterns, and day-to-day operating routines that guide people’s behavior are referred to as _______ of organizational culture.
A. artifacts and creations
B. structural considerations
C. basic underlying assumptions
D. the unifying theme
6. The process through which managers identify which aspects of the general and business environments are relevant to their organization is known as
7. Max Weber proposed all of the following types of power or domination except
8. Rafael offers to provide resources and assistance to Hector in exchange for helping him finish a report on time. Which proactive influence tactic is he using?
A. Personal appeal
9. Sigmund has helped design a _______ structure for his organization, which offers a number of benefits including flexibility, greater ability to deal with an uncertain environment, and responsiveness to customers.
10. In examining context of organization, Roland comes to learn that the term _______ includes not only the tools, techniques, and processes that organizations use to create goods and services, but also the knowledge that accompanies these elements.
11. Which phase of appreciative inquiry mobilizes the whole system by engaging all stakeholders in the articulation of strengths and best practices?
12. One of the ways people can increase their own power through minimizing their dependence on others is to
A. increase other people’s access to alternative sources of getting what they need.
B. decrease alternative sources of getting what they want.
C. increase their demands on others on whom they depend.
D. increase other’s dependence on them.
13. The goal of a _______ structure is to provide a high level of integration between function and product without extensive resources.
14. Which of the following is probably the most widely used OD technique?
A. Third-party intervention
B. Quality of work life programs
C. Survey feedback
15. _______ organizations are typically characterized by decentralized decision making, highly integrated activities, and little specialization or standardization.
16. While attempting to implement a new accounting system in his organization, Peter encounters some opposition from managers who feel that the costs of the new system are too high and from employees who have grown comfortable using the current system. These oppositional factors are referred to as _______ forces.
17. The entire strategic _______ process includes both forging a cohesive set of strategies and executing them.
18. The ideas that people consciously describe as the principles that shape the way they behave are known as
A. espoused theories.
C. perceptual biases.
19. The 4Is of organizational learning include intuiting, interpreting, integrating, and
20. One of the ways organizations can foster a positive organizational climate is by focusing on
A. a view of power based on hierarchy and performance.
B. an approach to power based on tradition and reward.
C. exclusiveness based on goals and values.
D. connectedness based on valuing differences and communication.