Which early sociologist emphasized the role of society in the development of the self?

 

Which early sociologist emphasized the role of society in the development of the self?

Tracking Your Academic Activities Verifying an accurate course completion time is essential for accreditation. To meet both accreditation requirements and award academic credit, educational institutions must document the total number of hours students spend completing designated academic activities related to their coursework.

The total hours are then translated into academic credit based on a prescribed method of measuring educational attainment known as the Carnegie Unit. 90 hours of student preparation time and 45 hours of student engagement time are required for a 3 credit hour course.

Using the attached form as an example, keep track of the time you spend on each lesson, pre-test, self-test, unit test, writing assignment, reading assignment, outside reading, final examination, etc. You will not be required to turn in the worksheet; however, at the end of the course you will receive a Student Course Survey and the final question will ask how long it took you to complete the course. Your assistance in completing this requirement and providing the university with this valuable data is greatly appreciated.

As you fill out the worksheet, please keep in mind that your Academic Engagement Activities should total approximately 45 hours. Some examples of this type of activity may include:

Lesson Review Exercises

Key Term Reviews

Analysis

Study Guide Review

Writing Assignments

Review Grading Rubric

Unit Examinations

Proctored Final Examination

Course Academic Online Discussions

Student/Instructor Interaction

Documents/Student Resources

As you fill out the Academic Preparation Activities, please keep in mind that these should total approximately 90 hours. Some samples of this type of activity may include:

Pre-Test

Reading Assignments

Key Term Reviews

Studying for Examinations

Writing Assignments

Review Grading Rubric

Study Lesson Review Exercises

Internet/Web Research

Reading Websites

Suggested Outside Reading

 

 

 

Sample Worksheet for Tracking Your Academic Activities

Upon completion of this course, you will be asked to complete a survey. The last question on the survey will ask you the number of hours it took to complete the course. The total hours are then translated into academic credit based on a prescribed method of measuring educational attainment known as the Carnegie Unit. 90 hours of student preparation time and 45 hours of student engagement time (135 hours) are required for a 3 credit hour course.

This worksheet was developed as a tool to help track your time. You are not required to turn it in.

length of time to

complete

length of time to

complete

length of time to

complete

length of time to

complete Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Totals

Academic Engagement Activities Lesson Review Exercises Key Term Review Exercises Study Guide Review Documents/Student Resources Writing Assignments Review Grading Rubric Unit Examinations Proctored Final Examination Case Studies/Critical Analysis Course Academic Online Discussions Student/Instructor Interactions

Total Academic Engagement required for a 3 unit course = 45 hours

Academic Preparation Activities Pre-Test Reading Assignments Analyze Case Studies/Critical Analysis Key Term Review Exercises Study for Examinations Suggested Outside Readings Web Research Writing Assignments Review Grading Rubric Reading Websites Study Lesson Review Exercises

Total Academic Preparation required for a 3 unit course = 90 hours

Grand total of hours of various learning activities in completing this course

 

 

 

Pre-test Instructions

Thank you for taking the time to complete the required pre-test. The purpose of the pre-test is to measure your knowledge of the subject matter at the beginning of each course.

Please be assured, your score on the pre-test will not be part of your course grade. We do not want you to try to study for it or be worried about doing well on the pre-test. It is simply a measure of your “starting place,” that will be used for improving course content and to meet accreditation requirements.

If you receive your course materials online: • Please log-in to your Coast Connection student portal to complete your pre-test.

If you receive your course materials by mail: • You will receive your answer sheets for the pre-test by mail. • Once you have completed your pre-test, please mail or fax your answer sheet to the University at:

California Coast University 925 N. Spurgeon Street Santa Ana, CA 92701 Fax: 714-547-1451

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the Student Services Department. Thank you for your cooperation.

 

 

 

Pre-test

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Which early sociologist emphasized the role of society in the development of the self? 1.

George Herbert Meada. Karl Marxb. Georg Simmerc. Herbert Blumer d.

____________ is the study of the effects of society on social-psychological processes, also 2. known as sociological social psychology.

sociologya. microsociologyb. macrosociologyc. psychology d.

Which of the following is considered a major dimension of group processes? 3.

legitimacya. justiceb. powerc. All of the above. d.

Perspective within symbolic interactionism that focuses on the quantitative study of social 4. interaction processes because of the stable nature of social life.

Chicago Schoola. Indiana Schoolb. Iowa Schoolc. both b and c d.

The research technique called “autoethnograpy” is associated with which social psychological 5. perspective?

symbolic interactiona. social structure and personalityb. group processesc. structural functionalism d.

Participants of an experiment that are not exposed to the independent variable. 6.

control groupa. convenience sampleb. focus groupc. experimental groupd.

 

 

Pre-test

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

The Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment is based on a study that began in ____________ 7. that was primarily led by ____________.

1957; Sewella. 1962; Nielsonb. 1965; Granovetterc. 1973; Kohn d.

According to research by Lucas and others, how can individuals with lower cultural status best 8. gain status in groups?

Give that person legitimate authority to lead the group.a. The person should focus on the success of the group, rather then her own interests.b. The person should provide a “kick back” to others in a group to get their leadership c. position. both a and b d.

Research in the 1960s showed a considerable overlap in ___________ and ___________ 9. occupations.

fathers’; sons’a. fathers’; daughters’b. mothers’; daughters’c. mothers’; sons’ d.

How did Joanne Nagel explain the increase in the number of people identifying themselves as 10. “American Indian” when the birth rates stayed the same?

Legal changes made scholarships more available to American Indians.a. The development of the “Red Power” movement shifted negative stereotypes of Indians.b. Urbanization made it easier for people to find and interact with other people that had c. some American-Indian heritage. All of the above. d.

The use of narratives and personal-stories is important to the process of _____________. 11.

symbolic interaction processa. identity control theoryb. mpression managementc. All of the above. d.

 

 

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Socialization is a process that _____________. 12.

begins at around two years of agea. lasts until the young twentiesb. begins at birth and continues through the life cyclec. both a and b d.

Sampson and Laub’s research on the impact of World War II (WWII) on men’s lives generally 13. showed that _____________.

WWII served as a turning point for all American soldiersa. IQ was the biggest factor in finding work after the warb. WWII only had an impact on soldiers if they served overseasc. most of the positive effects of war on the lives of soldiers came through their experience d. overseas, in-service training and access to programs like the GI Bill

Ausdale and Feagin’s research on children learning racism is important because 14. _______________.

it shows how children use race as a way to differentiate between peersa. it shows that children apply adult biases and racism in their day-to-day interactionsb. it shows that children use their own race as a way to gain acceptance by teachersc. both a and b d.

Most college students represent which type of person in Merton’s typology of deviance? 15.

conformistsa. innovatorsb. ritualistsc. retreatists d.

Component of social control theory referring to emotional bonds with other people in society. 16.

commitmenta. attachmentb. involvementc. None of the above. d.

 

 

Pre-test

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Manuel’s job loss really did not bother him because he did not like his boss. However, he 17. really started getting anxious when he stopped getting his paycheck. In this example, the effect of job loss on anxiety is ______________ by loss of income.

distresseda. moderatedb. mediatedc. constrained d.

Exposure to poor community conditions such as crime, poor living conditions and lack of 18. services.

malaisea. intransigenceb. ambient hazardsc. chronic strain d.

Nathan started attending KKK meetings when he saw some of his African-American neighbors 19. getting better jobs than him. Which of the following theories best explains Nathan’s negative attitude toward African Americans?

social distance theorya. symbolic interactionb. Blumer’s theory of group positionc. status construction theory d.

Theory that prejudicial attitudes reflect a group’s position in society. 20.

status construction theorya. theory of group positionb. modified labeling theoryc. colonization theory d.

A positive or negative evaluation of an object, a person or group or an idea. 21.

attitudea. prejudiceb. opinionc. belief d.

 

 

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Following Smelser’s value-added theory, why wouldn’t we expect a poor, third-world nation, 22. based on a barter economy, to develop mass hysteria over stock market problems like the U.S. did in the 1920s?

lack of structural conducivenessa. lack of structural strainb. lack of generalized beliefc. action of social control d.

Expectations about when and how to act excited or angry or any other emotion. 23.

emotional cuesa. emotional scriptsb. emotional energiesc. situational cues d.

When large numbers of people become obsessed with something like the purchase of a 24. product or an activity.

maniaa. crazeb. hysteriac. panic d.

A key ingredient of contagious mental unity, referring to situations in which people lose their 25. inhibitions to act and the tempo of their behavior increases.

intensity of behaviora. panicb. irrational behaviorc. hostile outburstsd.

 

 

 

925 North Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701

Text:

Author(s):

Publisher:

S tu

d y G

u id

e

www.calcoast.edu

Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777

Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives

Second Edition, 2011

ISBN-13: 9780205661060

David E. Rohall, Melissa A. Milkie and Jeffrey W. Lucas

Pearson

12/14

PSY 228 Social Psychology

 

 

 

Message From the President

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Welcome to California Coast University. I hope you will find this course interesting and useful throughout your career. This course was designed to meet the unique needs of students like you who are both highly motivated and capable of completing a degree program through distance learning.

Our faculty and administration have been involved in distance learning for over forty years and understand the characteristics common to successful students in this unique educational environment.

This course was prepared by CCU faculty members who are not only outstanding educators but who have real world experience. They have prepared these guidelines to help you successfully complete your educational goals and to get the most from your distance learning experience.

Again, we hope that you will find this course both helpful and motivating. We send our best wishes as you work toward the completion of your program.

Sincerely,

Thomas M. Neal President

 

 

 

 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotation in review. Copyright © 2014 by California Coast University

 

 

 

Syllabus

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Course Number PSY 228

Course Title Social Psychology

Course Description This course offers students an in-depth look at how people come to understand themselves and others in a social context, with considerable emphasis on sociology’s role in social psychology. Students will be given detailed examples of current research studies relating to each of the topics covered in this course such as stratification, deviance and mental health and illness. Each chapter of the text covered in this course will also introduce students to key sociological social psychologists whose research has made a significant contribution to the field.

Units of Credit 3 Units of Credit

Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

• Characterize three major perspectives in sociological social psychology.

• Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative research methods.

• Determine how group processes affect identity.

• Recognize important agents of socialization.

• Identify physiological, social and behavioral components of emotions.

Learning Resources Textbook: Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives 2nd edition, 2011 David E. Rohall, Melissa A. Milkie, and Jeffrey W. Lucas Pearson

ISBN-13: 9780205661060

All course examinations are based on the contents of the textbook required for this course. To successfully complete the examinations, you will need the textbook. You may rent the textbook from the CCU rental library or you may purchase the textbook from another source.

Although this study guide is developed by California Coast University, it may contain materials provided by the publisher of the textbook.

The Study Guide

The study guide was designed to help you further understand the material in the textbook and master the course content. Each study guide chapter corresponds to a chapter in the textbook.

 

 

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Additional Readings and Online Resources

To help you further understand this subject material, additional readings and/or online resources related to this course are listed in this syllabus.

The Library Information and Resources Network, Inc. (LIRN)

Students are provided access to the Library and Information Resources Network, Inc. (LIRN). LIRN provides a centralized management of electronic information resources that allow students to access multiple research databases through one portal. Detailed information on the Library and Information Resources Network, Inc. is available on the California Coast University website under the Resources Tab. For additional information on using the network, LIRN provides a User Guide to help students search for the needed information. This helpful resource is available on the LIRN website. For information on accessing LIRN, please contact California Coast University – library@calcoast.edu or (714) 547-9625.

Supplementary Materials

Unit Examination Answer Sheets* Final Examination Scheduling Form

*Master of Education and Doctor of Education students will not receive unit exam answer sheets. These programs require written responses only.

Your Course Grade

Your grades on course examinations are determined by the percentage of correct answers. The university uses the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

Your grade in this course will be based on the number of points you earn. Grades are based on the percentage of points you earned out of a total of 500 points:

Four Unit Examinations

100 points each 400 points total 80% of your grade

Final Examination

100 points 100 points total 20% of your grade

 

 

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Mastering the Course Content

In order to successfully complete this course, we recommend that you do the following before beginning:

• Be sure that you have the correct edition of the course textbook. Check the ISBN number of your textbook with the ISBN number listed on the cover page of this study guide.

• Review the table of contents at the end of this syllabus. You will only be responsible for the chapters in the textbook that are listed in the table of contents.

Each study guide contains several components selected and developed by the faculty to help you master the content of the course. Each chapter in the study guide corresponds to a chapter in the textbook. Study guides vary depending on the course, but most will include:

Learning Objectives Overviews Self Tests Summaries Key Terms Critical Analysis Questions (graduate and doctoral students only)

The most efficient way to complete this course is to read the materials in both the study guide and textbook in the sequence in which it appears, generally from beginning to end.

Read the Overviews and Summaries

Before reading a chapter of your textbook, review the corresponding learning objectives, overview, key terms and summary sections in the study guide. These were prepared to give you an overview of the content to be learned.

Review the Self Test

After you have reviewed the study guide summaries, look at the items on the self test. As you identify your areas of relative strength and weakness, you will become more aware of the material you will need to learn in greater depth.

Review the Critical Analysis and/or Case Study Questions (Graduate and Doctoral Students Only) The critical analysis questions are designed to help you gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for the course subject matter. This section will encourage you to give additional thought to the topics discussed in the chapter by presenting vignettes or cases with real world relevance.

 

 

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Read and Review the Chapter

Once you have the scope and organization of the chapter in mind, turn to the corresponding chapter in the textbook and read the material carefully. Keep the learning objectives, self test, critical analysis questions and/or case study questions in mind as you read.

Highlight important concepts and information in your study guide and write notes in the study guide as you read the textbook. These notes will help you study for the unit and final examinations.

Check Your Mastery of Each Chapter

When you feel that you have mastered the concepts presented in the chapter, complete the study guide self test and critical analysis questions and/or case study questions without referring to the textbook or your notes. Correct your responses using the answer key and solutions guide provided in the study guide. Your results will help you identify any areas you need to review.

Unit Examinations

Each course contains four unit examinations and a final examination. Unit examinations usually consist of 25 objective (multiple choice or true/false) test questions. For Master of Education and Doctor of Education students, unit examinations consist of writing assignments only.

Unit examinations may be found approximately every four to six chapters throughout your study guide. Unit examinations are open-book, do not require a proctor and are not timed. This will allow you to proceed at your own pace.

It is recommended that you check your answers against the material in your textbook for accuracy.

Writing Assignments

Each unit examination includes a written component. This assignment may be in the form of written questions or case study problems. The writing assignment affords the student an opportunity to demonstrate a level of subject mastery beyond the objective unit examinations, which reflects his/her ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply his/her knowledge. The writing assignment materials are found immediately following each unit examination.

Writing assignments are judged on the quality of the response in regard to the question. Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fall in the following ranges:

 

 

Syllabus

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

• Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages.

• Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages.

• Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Plagiarism consists of taking and using the ideas, writings or inventions of another, without giving credit to that person and presenting it as one’s own. This is an offense that the university takes very seriously. An example of a correctly prepared written response may be found by visiting the Coast Connection student portal.

Citation Styles

The majority of your response should be your own original writing based on what you have learned from the textbook. However, students may also use outside materials if applicable. Be sure to provide a reference (or citation) for any materials used, including the required textbook. The following points are designed to help you understand how to provide proper references for your work:

• References are listed in two places.

• The first reference is briefly listed within your answer. This includes identifying information that directs the reader to your list of references at the end of your writing assignment.

• The second reference is at the end of your work in the list of references section.

• All references cited should provide enough identifying information so that the reader can access the original material.

For more detailed information on the proper use of citations, please refer to the CCU Student Handbook located on the Coast Connection student portal.

Submitting Your Unit Examinations and Writing Assignments via the Internet

Students may access the online testing features via the Coast Connection student portal. Multiple choice unit examinations may be completed and submitted online.

 

 

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Go to the California Coast University homepage at www.calcoast.edu and click on the student login icon at the upper right hand corner. After logging into your account, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the unit examination. Remember to keep a copy of your answers for your own personal records.

Writing assignments may be submitted online as well. After logging into the student portal, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the writing assignment. Here, you will find further information and instructions on how to submit writing assignments through the student portal. Remember to keep a copy of your writing assignments for your own personal records.

Alternatively, if you experience diffulty submitting your writing assignments through the student portal, then you may email your assignments as a Word document attachment to essays@calcoast.edu. When doing so, please adhere to the following guidelines:

• Always submit your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number with your writing assignment.

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• All responses must be typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size for ease of reading and grading.

Submitting Your Unit Examinations by Mail

Send your completed unit examination along with any writing assignments to the following mailing address:

California Coast University Testing Department 925 N. Spurgeon Street Santa Ana, CA 92701

Requests to retake a unit examination will only be honored if the final exam has NOT been sent.

 

 

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Students may retake one unit examination per course, free of charge. The cost for each additional, repeated exam will be $90. Payment must be paid in full to the accounting department prior to repeating unit exams.

Please contact Student Services for a repeat unit examination form. You may resubmit your unit examination once the original grade has been cleared from your online degree plan.

Final Examination

Scheduling a Final Examination

Final examination requests can be submitted via U.S. mail, online through the Coast Connection student portal, or by calling the Testing Department at (714) 547-9625.

A final exam scheduling form is located on the last page of this study guide. Please fill out ALL required fields and mail it to the university.

If you would like to request a final exam online, log into the Coast Connection student portal and click on My Academic Plan. Select the course you are working on and submit the Final Exam Request form located at the bottom of the page. ALL INFORMATION MUST BE FILLED IN.

Submitting Your Final Examination

Final Examinations can be submitted by mail, fax or online through the Coast Connection student portal.

After you have completed your exam, you or your proctor can fax it to the Grading Department at (714) 547-1451 or mail it to the university. When faxing exams, please do not resize your fax.

For online submissions, once you have logged into the student portal, click on My Academic Plan and select the course you are working on to complete the final examination. You must input the unique password that was sent to your proctor in order to unlock your final examination questions. Remember to keep a copy of your answers for your own personal records.

Proctors

The university requires that all final examinations be completed under the supervision of a proctor.

A proctor can be anyone EXCEPT an immediate family member, someone who resides with you or a current/former CCU student.

 

 

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The purpose of the proctored final examination is to verify that you are, in fact, the person who is enrolled in the course of study. It is also to verify that you are completing the final examination without the aid of any outside assistance.

During the proctored final examination, you may use your textbook and any notes you have taken during the completion of your unit examinations. Your designated proctor will verify your identity and that you have completed the final examination without any outside assistance.

Your Overall Grade Point Average (G.P.A.)

In addition to receiving a passing grade for each course, all students must maintain a required overall G.P.A. in order to graduate. Undergraduate students need an overall G.P.A. of 2.0 (C) on a 4.0 scale. Graduate and doctoral students need an overall G.P.A. of 3.0 (B) on a 4.0 scale.

A = 4 grade points B = 3 grade points C = 2 grade points D = 1 grade point F = 0 grade points

Students who do not meet the overall G.P.A. requirement by the end of their program must pay the current cost of tuition to repeat courses until they improve their overall G.P.A.

Overall course grades of “F” will be displayed on your degree plan and count as 0 units completed. You must pay to retake these courses.

Doctoral students must repeat any courses in which the overall course grade is a “D” or “F”.

Be sure to keep a copy of all work you submit to the university.

 

 

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

If you have any questions about how to proceed through the course or regarding any California Coast University policies and procedures, the easiest way to get help is to send us a message through the student portal, via email, or phone the university.

University office hours are Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Pacific Standard Time.

California Coast University

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, California 92701 Phone: (714) 547-9625 Fax: (714) 547-5777 Test Answer Sheet Fax Line: (714) 547-1451

Email: testing@calcoast.edu

Don’t forget: You are not alone! We are here to help you achieve your dream!

PS Y

22 8

 

 

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Learning Objectives

The learning objectives for this course are listed below:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociological Social Psychology

1. Define social psychology. 2. Differentiate between macrosociology and microsociology. 3. Compare and contrast sociologists and psychologists’ approach to social psychology. 4. Identify the three major perspectives in sociological social psychology.

Chapter 2: Perspectives in Sociological Social Psychology

1. Distinguish the major principles of the symbolic interaction perspective. 2. Define what it means to “construct” the world around us. 3. Characterize the social structure and personality perspective. 4. Identify key elements of the group processes perspective. 5. Consider elements of group structure.

Chapter 3: Studying People

1. Become acquainted with the vocabulary of social science research. 2. Differentiate qualitative sociology from quantitative sociology. 3. Determine major forms of qualitative and quantitative research. 4. Assess how social scientists begin to develop a research project.

Chapter 4: The Social Psychology of Stratification

1. Interpret how people construct inequality in society. 2. Determine how structure is linked to interactions. 3. Evaluate how stratification develops in group interaction. 4. Judge how inequalities from society-at-large get reproduced in groups.

Chapter 5: Self and Identity

1. Identify the components of the self. 2. Determine interactionist theories of the self and identity. 3. Characterize three dimensions of the self-concept. 4. Analyze what we know from research on the self-concept. 5. Interpret how group processes affect identity.

 

 

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PSY 228 Social Psychology

Chapter 6: Socialization Over the Life Course

1. Critique how society influences the social construction of the self. 2. Chart the stages involved in developing the self. 3. Name the four elements of life-course sociology. 4. Consider agents of socialization and how they affect our lives. 5. Assess how group processes researchers study socialization.

Chapter 7: The Social Psychology of Deviance

1. Analyze how we define what is normal and what is deviant. 2. Determine how the construction of deviant labels contribute to the development of deviant lifestyles. 3. Judge how structural conditions influence individuals’ decisions to commit deviant acts. 4. Consider how group relationships influence the development of deviance and perceptions of deviance.

Chapter 8: Mental Health and Illness

1. Determine what it means to be mentally healthy. 2. Interpret how the definition of mental illness is constructed. 3. List the structural conditions in society that contribute to distress. 4. Identify resources that can buffer stress. 5. Assess how mental health can influence our sense of identity and interactions with others.

Chapter 9: Attitudes, Values and Behaviors

1. Identify the nature of an attitude. 2. Evaluate how researchers study attitudes and behaviors. 3. Describe how people construct attitudes. 4. Analyze how attitudes toward other people form in group contexts.

Chapter 10: The Sociology of Sentiment and Emotion

1. Distinguish the components of emotions. 2. Determine how people learn emotions. 3. Consider how identity relates to emotions. 4. Evaluate how our statuses in society affect our uses of emotions. 5. Interpret the norms that govern the use of emotions in different social settings. 6. Predict how group settings affect emotions.

 

 

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Chapter 11: Collective Behavior

1. Analyze how crowds contribute to the development of mass hysteria. 2. Identify theories that explain individuals’ behavior in large groups. 3. Decide whether structural conditions affect crowd behaviors. 4. Chart the phases of collective behavior found in large social movements. 5. Evaluate how group and individual motivations interact in social movements.

 

 

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Best, Joel. 2006. Flavor of the Month: Why Smart People Fall for Fads. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Clarke, Lee. 2006. Worst Cases: Terror and Catastrophe in the Popular Imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gergen, Kenneth J. 2000. The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. New York: Basic Books.

Hertz, Rosanna. 2006. Single by Chance, Mothers by Choice: How Women are Choosing Parenthood without Marriage and Creating the New American Family. New York: Oxford University Press.

Horowitz, Allan V. 2002. Creating Mental Illness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lareau, Annette. 2003. Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Miller, David L. 2000. Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

Polletta, Francesca. 2006. It was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ream, Robert Ketner. 2005. Uprooting Children: Mobility, Social Capital and Mexican American Underachievement. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

Scheff, Thomas J. 1990. Microsociology: Discourse, Emotion and Social Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Swidler, Ann. 2001. Talk of Love: How Culture Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Turner,Ralph H. and Lewis M. Killian. 1972. Collective Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Zelizer, Viviana. 2005. The Purchase of Intimacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Suggested Readings

 

 

Table of Contents

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Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii-xx

Unit One Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociological Social Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 2: Perspectives in Sociological Social Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter 3: Studying People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Unit 1 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Unit 1 Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Unit 1 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Unit Two

Chapter 4: The Social Psychology of Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Chapter 5: Self and Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Chapter 6: Socialization Over the Life Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Unit 2 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Unit 2 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Unit 2 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Unit Three

Chapter 7: The Social Psychology of Deviance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Chapter 8: Mental Health and Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Chapter 9: Attitudes, Values and Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Unit 3 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Unit 3 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Unit 3 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Unit Four Chapter 10: The Sociology of Sentiment and Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Chapter 11: Collective Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Unit 4 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Unit 4 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Unit 4 Writing Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

Final Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Final Exam Scheduling Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

 

 

Objectives

1

Instructions to Students

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Chapter One Introduction to Sociological Social Psychology

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Define social psychology.

2. Differentiate between macrosociology and microsociology.

3. Compare and contrast sociologists and psychologists’ approach to social psychology.

4. Identify the three major perspectives in sociological social psychology.

• Read pages 1-24 of your textbook

• Reference: Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives by Rohall, Milkie and Lucas, 2nd edition, 2011

 

 

Overview

2

PSY 228 Social Psychology

This chapter is designed to give students an understanding of how sociologists study social psychology and its role in the larger field of sociology. Students will gain an understanding of the distinction between psychology and sociology and be able to explain the major sociological social psychology perspectives.

 

 

Key Terms

3

The key terms listed below are terms with which you should be familiar. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Breaching experiments:

Culture:

Ethnomethodology:

Macrosociology:

Organizations:

Psychology:

Roles:

Social norms:

Social psychology:

Sociological imagination:

Symbolic interactionism:

 

 

Summary

4

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Sociology is the study of society. Sociologists look at society from both the macro and the micro level of analysis. Both psychological and sociological social psychologists study the social contexts of human thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Sociologists, however, also apply the perspectives and methods of the field of sociology to the study of social psychology.

Sociology was first defined in 1838 by French social philosopher, August Comte, who applied the principles of the scientific method to society. Some of the founders of sociological social psychology include George Herbert Mead, W.E.B. Dubois, William Thomas, Charles Horton Cooley and George Simmel. Three major perspectives in sociological social psychology include symbolic interactionism, social structure and personality and group processes.

Sociologists use a tool kit consisting of methods and concepts for studying the role of society in social psychological processes. Their tools include such concepts as statuses, roles, norms and values, culture and social institutions—which they apply to the study of human thoughts—feelings and behavior.

 

 

Self Test

5

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. How can macrosociological perspectives be used to study individual, micro-level interactions?

a. Macrosociological conditions may cause some individual-level conditions to exist in the first place. b. Differences in our macrosociological conditions may change the way we react to life events. c. Life events that affect us the most are often caused by societal conditions. d. All of the above.

2. Janna wanted to study the effects of population size on individuals’ decision to commit suicide. Which social psychological perspective is she most likely to use?

a. psychology b. sociology c. sociological social psychology d. psychological social psychology

3. Which macrosociological perspective views society as social systems composed of parts that serve to keep the system working properly?

a. conflict perspective b. symbolic interactionism c. behavioralism d. structural functionalism

4. Joe started noticing that kids from the upper classes tend to get accepted at better colleges than the kids from the middle and lower classes. His analysis probably comes from which macrosociological perspective?

a. conflict perspective b. symbolic interactionism c. behavioralism d. structural functionalism

 

 

Self Test

6

PSY 228 Social Psychology

5. Sociological social psychology is different from psychological social psychology because:

a. it focuses on the effects of societal conditions on individuals’ thoughts, feelings and behavior. b. it incorporates sociological perspectives and theories to explain individuals’ thoughts, feelings and behavior. c. it is a subfield of sociology, not psychology. d. All of the above.

6. Social psychology is the systematic study of individual thoughts, feelings and behavior in a social context. Which of the following social contexts are more likely to be studied by sociologists than psychologists?

a. small groups b. family interactions c. ethnic groups d. friendship groups

 

 

Answer Keys

7

Key Term Definitions

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Breaching experiments: Experiments that violate the established social order to assess how people construct social reality.

Culture: A society’s set of unique patterns of behavior and beliefs.

Ethnomethodology: A method of studying society through observation of people’s typical day-to-day interactions.

Macrosociology: The study of large-scale social processes.

Organizations: Groups that share a common purpose and contain a formal set of rules and authority structure.

Psychology: The study of human thought processes and behaviors.

Roles: A set of expectations about how to behave in a group.

Social norms: The rules that regulate our behavior in relationships.

Social psychology: The systematic study of people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior in social contexts.

Sociological imagination: The ability to see personal lives in the context of the larger society— its history, culture and social structure.

Symbolic interactionism: A perspective within sociological social psychology that emphasizes the study of how people negotiate the meaning of social life during their interactions with other people.

 

 

Answers to Self Test

Answer Keys

8

PSY 228 Social Psychology

1. d

2. c

3. d

4. a

5. d

6. c

 

 

Notes

9

PSY 228 Social Psychology

 

 

Objectives

10

Instructions to Students

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Chapter Two Perspectives in Sociological Social Psychology

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Distinguish the major principles of the symbolic interaction perspective.

2. Define what it means to “construct” the world around us.

3. Characterize the social structure and personality perspective.

4. Identify key elements of the group processes perspective.

5. Consider elements of group structure.

• Read pages 25-53 of your textbook

• Reference: Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives by Rohall, Milkie and Lucas, 2nd edition, 2011

 

 

Overview

11

PSY 228 Social Psychology

This chapter provides an extensive review of three major perspectives in sociological social psychology. Students will learn about the history, theoretical and empirical importance of the three perspectives. The chapter begins with an overview of the history and tenets of symbolic interactionism. This is followed by a review of the two major schools of symbolic interactionism.

 

 

Key Terms

12

The key terms listed below are terms with which you should be familiar. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Agency:

Collective behavior:

Components principle:

Frame analysis:

Legitimacy:

Proximity principle:

Psychology principle:

Reference groups:

Social scripts:

Thomas theorem:

 

 

Summary

13

PSY 228 Social Psychology

There are three broad perspectives in sociological social psychology: symbolic interactionism, social structure and personality and group processes.

Symbolic interactionism is the study of how people negotiate meaning during their interactions with others. Within this approach, two schools of symbolic interactionism exists: the Chicago school and the Iowa and Indiana schools.

The social structure and personality perspective emphasizes how social structure affects individuals within a society. Structural forces include status, roles and social networks.

The group processes perspective focuses on interactions that occur within groups, characteristics of groups and relationships among groups. Processes studied by those in the group processes perspective include power, status, justice and legitimacy.

A group’s behavior is influenced by structural conditions including its size and its function. Group research may focus on structure or on other aspects of group processes, such as the relationship between groups and the behavior of larger groups of people called collective behavior.

 

 

Self Test

14

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Which social theorists are most associated with the concept of the social construction of reality?

a. Marx and Engels b. Thomas and Thomas c. Berger and Luckmann d. Blumer and Mead

2. A local fraternity developed a special hand signal whenever they see each other on the university quad. In symbolic interactionist terms, this signal has become a ______________ for this group.

a. meaningful exchange b. important source of pride c. language d. symbol

3. Terence started to believe that a friend at work is really a spy from another company, leading him to avoid interactions with that person as much as possible. Ultimately, he treats all interactions with her as suspect, making him reluctant to share any work-related information with her. Which of the following best explains Terence’s behavior?

a. components principle of the social structure and personality perspective b. the Thomas theorem c. the peter principle d. the group processes concept of legitimacy

4. Who coined the expression “symbolic interaction”?

a. Emile Durkheim b. Herbert Blumer c. August Comte d. George Herbert Mead

5. Professor Swanson is studying the meaning of “goodness” using a survey of public attitudes toward the topic. Which school of symbolic interaction is she most likely using in her research?

a. the Chicago school b. the Indiana/Iowa school c. the Swanson school d. the sociological social psychology school

 

 

Self Test

15

PSY 228 Social Psychology

6. Socioeconomic status (social class), race or ethnicity, gender, age and sexuality all relate to which principle of the social structure and personality perspective?

a. components principle b. proximity principle c. psychology principle d. peter principle

 

 

Answer Keys

16

Key Term Definitions

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Agency: The ability to act and think independent of the constraints imposed by social conditions.

Collective behavior: The action or behavior of people in groups or crowds.

Components principle: Within the social structure and personality perspective, the ability to identify the elements or components of society most likely to affect a given attitude or behavior.

Frame analysis: The process by which individuals transform the meaning of a situation using basic cognitive structures provided by society.

Legitimacy: The perception that a social arrangement or position is the way that things should be.

Proximity principle: Element of the social structure and personality perspective referring to how people are affected by social structure through their immediate social environments.

Psychology principle: Element of the social structure and personality perspective referring to how individuals internalize proximal experiences.

Reference groups: People we look to as a source of standards and identity.

Social scripts: The appropriate thoughts, feelings and behaviors that should be displayed in a particular social frame.

Thomas theorem: Theorem stating that when people define situations as real, the consequences of those situations become real.

 

 

Answers to Self Test

Answer Keys

17

PSY 228 Social Psychology

1. c

2. d

3. b

4. b

5. b

6. a

 

 

Notes

18

PSY 228 Social Psychology

 

 

Objectives

19

Instructions to Students

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Chapter Three Studying People

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Become acquainted with the vocabulary of social science research.

2. Differentiate qualitative sociology from quantitative sociology.

3. Determine major forms of qualitative and quantitative research.

4. Assess how social scientists begin to develop a research project.

• Read pages 54-82 of your textbook

• Reference: Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives by Rohall, Milkie and Lucas, 2nd edition, 2011

 

 

Overview

20

PSY 228 Social Psychology

The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the techniques sociological social psychologists use to study people, emphasizing theoretical differences on the appropriate means of obtaining social-psychological data.

 

 

Key Terms

21

The key terms listed below are terms with which you should be familiar. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Categorical variables:

Ethnography:

Focus groups:

Indices:

Interval variables:

Ordinal variables:

Population:

Qualitative research methods:

Reliability:

Snowball sample:

Validity:

 

 

Summary

22

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Several concepts apply to almost any research project. Researchers regularly use terms such as theory, research questions or hypotheses and variables to describe ways of studying people.

Researchers employ qualitative and quantitative techniques to study human subjects. Qualitative research methods include field research and in-depth interviews. Quantitative methods include survey research and experiments.

The steps in developing most research projects include assessing the theory and literature of the research topic, developing research questions or specific hypotheses, choosing the appropriate research methods, conducting data analysis and reporting the results.

Although there is no rule about whether a particular theory should or should not use quantitative or qualitative methods to study people, symbolic interactionists have traditionally relied more on qualitative methods. Many researchers try to employ multiple methods of studying a particular phenomenon.

 

 

Self Test

23

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. How are social theories and hypotheses related to one another?

a. Theories include general statements about social relationships while hypotheses are more specific statements about how variables will relate to one another. b. Theories are an extension of hypotheses. c. Theories are used to develop hypotheses. d. both a and c

2. Samantha started a research project predicting that men would be more supportive of using military forces to go to war than women. In this case, attitudes toward going to war is what kind of variable?

a. index b. scale c. independent variable d. dependent variable

3. In preparing for a survey of country club members, Donella asked the manager of the club for a list of members. This list refers to a _______________.

a. random sample b. probability sample c. sample list d. sampling frame

4. Which of the following types of samples is considered most representative of any given population?

a. random sample b. convenience sample c. snowball sample d. both b and c

5. An instructor asks you to develop a study of the homeless that will provide a great deal of depth into what it is like to be homeless. Given this mandate, which of the following methods would most likely give the information you need for such a project?

a. ethnography b. focus group c. survey d. experiment

 

 

Self Test

24

PSY 228 Social Psychology

6. A sample in which any available person is included in the study is known as a ____________ sample.

a. true b. convenience c. odd d. real time

 

 

Answer Keys

25

Key Term Definitions

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Categorical variables: Measures for which the possible responses have no particular order.

Ethnography: A form of field research that includes a descriptive analysis of a group or organization.

Focus groups: Semistructured interviews with small groups of people.

Indices: A series of related questions designed to measure a concept such as mastery.

Interval variables: A type of variable in which the difference between any two adjacent values is the same.

Ordinal variables: Variables for which response categories are ordered but the distances between adjacent categories are not necessarily equal.

Population: The larger group of people about whom a researcher seeks to draw conclusions.

Qualitative research methods: In-depth, semi-structured modes of observation or interviewing of subjects.

Reliability: When a study yields the same results using the same techniques and data.

Snowball sample: Samples in which informants provide contact information about other people who share some of the characteristics necessary for a study.

Validity: How valid or accurate the findings of the study are.

 

 

Answers to Self Test

Answer Keys

26

PSY 228 Social Psychology

1. d

2. a

3. d

4. a

5. a

6. b

 

 

Notes

27

PSY 228 Social Psychology

 

 

Unit 1 Examination Instructions

28

The Unit Examination

The unit examination contains 25 multiple choice questions, as well as a writing assignment.

Your grade on the examination will be determined by the percentage of correct answers. The university utilizes the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

4 grade points 3 grade points 2 grade points 1 grade point 0 grade points

Completing Unit One Examination

Before beginning your examination, we recommend that you thoroughly review the textbook chapters and other materials covered in each unit and follow the suggestions in the mastering the course content section of the syllabus.

This unit examination consists of objective test questions as well as a comprehensive writing assignment selected to reflect the learning objectives identified in each chapter covered so far in your textbook.

Additional detailed information on completing the examination, writing standards and how to submit your completed examination may be found in the syllabus for this course.

PSY 228 Social Psychology

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

29

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Which early sociologists emphasized the role of society in the development of the self?

a. George Herbert Mead b. Karl Marx c. Georg Simmer d. Herbert Blumer

2. Which sociological social psychology perspective emphasizes the role of meaning and the social construction of meaning in the study of social psychology?

a. symbolic interaction b. social structure and personality c. group processes d. structural functionalism

3. Which sociological social psychology perspective is likely to emphasize the importance of roles and statuses in the study of social psychology?

a. symbolic interaction b. social structure and personality c. group processes d. structural functionalism

4. Which sociological social psychology perspective is likely to emphasize the importance of interactions within groups?

a. symbolic interaction b. social structure and personality c. group processes d. structural functionalism

5. The sociological imagination is associated with which social theorists?

a. Emile Durkheim b. Max Weber c. C. Wright Mills d. Auguste Comte

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

30

PSY 228 Social Psychology

6. The expectation to look someone in the eye when talking with them refers to a _______________.

a. norm b. role c. value d. belief

7. Derek’s job as a supervisor refers to his relative _______________ in the company while the expectations for how to behave on the job refers to his ________________.

a. role; status b. job; role c. status; role d. status; job

8. Which institution regulates sexual relations and child-rearing in society?

a. economy and work b. politics c. family d. religion

9. Which institution refers to the rituals and beliefs regarding sacred things?

a. economy and work b. politics c. family d. religion

10. Franklin did not think much about how the economy or society affects his life until he lost his job. Franklin’s internal processesing of his job loss best represents which principle from the social structure and personality perspective?

a. components principle b. psychology principle c. propinquity principle d. proximity principle

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

31

PSY 228 Social Psychology

11. After Donna cheated on her most recent exam, she starts to feel a sense of guilt, making her reconsider whether she wants to do it again. Donna’s feelings of guilt can be considered a ______________, according to the social structure and personality perspective, leading her to rethink her future behaviors.

a. social more b. social norm c. social force d. social fear

12. Which of the following is considered a major dimension of group processes?

a. power b. justice c. legitimacy d. All of the above.

13. Janelle wants to study how and why some people are able to tell other people what to do while others can not. What aspect of group processes is she studying?

a. power b. status c. justice d. legitimacy

14. What social psychologist is most associated with the concepts of dyads and triads?

a. Emile Durkheim b. August Comte c. Herbert Blumer d. Georg Simmel

15. The difference between dyads and triads is important because:

a. moving from a dyad to a triad exponentially increases the number of relationships available in an interaction. b. moving from a dyad to a triad exponentially decreases the amount of intimacy possible in a group. c. moving from a dyad to a triad exponentially decreases the number of relationships available in an interaction. d. both a and b

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

32

PSY 228 Social Psychology

16. A group of friends getting together for dinner represents a ______________ group while a group of people at your work represents a _____________ group.

a. reference; primary b. primary; reference c. primary; secondary d. secondary; reference

17. Bob goes to the beach on a hot summer day and is surprised when he observes a group of people dressed in formal wear sitting in beach chairs amongst sunbathers. Bob was surprised because the ______________ did not meet his expectations for that situation.

a. situation b. social scripts c. frame d. All of the above.

18. ____________ require the researcher to weigh individual items differently.

a. Indices b. Scales c. both a and b d. None of the above.

19. Which of the following methods is MOST likely to show causation?

a. ethnography b. focus group c. survey d. experiment

20. An instructor developed a study to determine ways of producing more participation in his classes. In one class she provided free donuts everyday of class while in another she gave them nothing. She had her assistant takes notes on the number of comments and questions students made in each class. Which of these classes represent the control group?

a. the class not given the donuts b. the class given the donuts c. other classes that are not part of the experiment d. both classes would be considered the control group

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

33

PSY 228 Social Psychology

21. ____________ developed the field of operant conditioning; much of his work relied on experiments using rats and pigeons.

a. Carl Jung b. B.F. Skinner c. Sigmund Freud d. Joseph Berger

22. At what step in the research process does the researcher employ the library and other resources and conduct a literature review?

a. step 1 b. step 2 c. step 3 d. step 4

23. At what step in the research process does the researcher actually go out and collect data?

a. step 1 b. step 2 c. step 3 d. step 4

24. Research conducted by interviews, participant observations and ethnographies is referred to as what kind of research?

a. quantitative b. qualitative c. breeching d. experimental

25. Social scientists must always be concerned with _______________ and _______________ to accurately capture the phenomena in question.

a. truth and reliability b. reliability and validity c. truth and validity d. probability and validity

 

 

Unit 1 Examination

34

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Writing Assignment for Unit One

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your writing assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Think about the concept of poverty. How would a macro-level sociologist study this concept differently than a micro-level sociologist?

2. Discuss how symbolic interactionists define the concept of society. What role do symbols and language play in the development of society?

3. Discuss the ways that group structures can impact interaction in groups. Specifically, examine how group size (i.e., dyads and triads) and types of groups (e.g., primary groups) impact interactions between people.

 

 

You Can Do It

35

PSY 228 Social Psychology

You have just completed Unit 1 of this course.

You are off to a great start!

Keep up the good work!

 

 

Objectives

36

Instructions to Students

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Chapter Four The Social Psychology of Stratification

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Interpret how people construct inequality in society.

2. Determine how structure is linked to interactions.

3. Evaluate how stratification develops in group interaction.

4. Judge how inequalities from society-at-large get reproduced in groups.

• Read pages 84-120 of your textbook

• Reference: Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives by Rohall, Milkie and Lucas, 2nd edition, 2011

 

 

Overview

37

PSY 228 Social Psychology

One of the major ways that sociological social psychology is different from its counterpart in psychology is its greater emphasis on the role of stratification in social psychological processes. There are several ways in which stratification affects our lives and relationships. Symbolic interactionists sometimes address how we create and maintain definitions of different classes of people. Social structure and personality scholars emphasize how structural conditions, often related to work, education, or family settings affect people. Those in the group processes perspective examine how stratification systems from the larger society become reproduced in groups. We will use each of these perspectives to examine how stratification processes occur in our day-to-day lives.

 

 

Key Terms

38

The key terms listed below are terms with which you should be familiar. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Borderwork:

Direct exchanges:

Doing difference:

Feedback loop:

Intersectionality:

Routinization:

Social capital:

Social exchange theory:

Social stratification:

Substantive complexity:

 

 

Summary

39

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Three ways that interactionist researchers focus on stratification processes include examining how social structure shapes who we interact with, accounting for inequalities in the content of interactions, acknowledging how people with certain status characteristics have more power in terms of role taking and examining people’s power to define situations and define themselves.

The Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment traces the relationships among individual’s class position, their abilities and their long-term occupational outcomes.

The effect of networking among individuals from different groups creates a variety of outcomes for those involved, depending on the status of the individuals in a group as well as the status of the group itself.

Values serve as a guide for making decisions about the future, ultimately affecting the types of jobs we attain and class position we have in life, producing a feedback loop between our personality and social positions.

Group processes contribute to our understanding of structural developments by studying the exchanges among individuals in groups. Exchange processes lend themselves to the development of status structures because people bring different types and quantities of resources into the process. People who contribute more to a group or have more resources generally achieve a higher status in groups.

 

 

Self Test

40

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Circle the correct answer)

1. Shirley Brice Heath’s research on the socialization of status and race among Whites and Blacks in the rural-Piedmont Carolinas is important because:

a. it shows how social class influences how we interact with other people. b. it shows how historical and social conditions can affect our day-to-day interactions. c. it shows that White people have an advantage over African-Americans in getting into good colleges. d. both a and b

2. Which perspective in sociological social psychology is more likely to examine the effects of stratification in day-to-day exchanges between people?

a. symbolic interaction b. social structure and personality c. group processes d. structural functionalism

3. Which of the following is the best example of “borderwork”?

a. a group of teenage boys smoking cigarettes in a high-school parking lot b. a group of girls at a slumber party c. a group of boys and girls playing “kiss and chase” d. a group of boys and girls being lectured to about poor behavior

4. Elijah Anderson’s study of inner city norms and values show that:

a. inner city residents tend to be submissive in the face of their poverty. b. inner city residents are taught to develop a toughness to deal with challenges of poverty and poor living conditions. c. most inner city residents accept most traditional norms from the larger culture. d. both b and c

5. An intersectional approach is essential to understanding the dynamics of stratification because it allows us to the look at the multitude of ways in which our statuses and positions affect our experience.

a. True b. False

 

 

Self Test

41

PSY 228 Social Psychology

6. According to the Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment, how does our social background influence our occupational status in life?

a. It shows that our social background influences with whom we spend time. b. It shows that our social background influences our mental abilities. c. It shows that our social background affects our educational levels. d. All of the above.

 

 

Answer Keys

42

Key Term Definitions

PSY 228 Social Psychology

Borderwork: The creation of social and physical boundaries between boys and girls.

Direct exchanges: Exchanges between two people.

Doing difference: Any way in which inequality in any form (race, class or gender) is perpetuated during our interactions as people are held accountable to the social categories in which they are a part.

Feedback loop: A process in which our class position influences the development of values that, in turn, influences the type of job we seek.

Intersectionality: The idea that race, gender and class statuses are not separate but interlocking systems of inequality.

Routinization: Part of Kohn and Schooler’s model of status attainment referring to the level of repetitiveness found on the job.

Social capital: Trust and support found in relationships with other people.

Social exchange theory: Theory based on the premise that individuals enter into relationships that provide some benefit to them and end or leave relationships that do not provide some sort of reward.

Social stratification: The ways in which individuals or groups are ranked in society.

Substantive complexity: Part of Kohn and Schooler’s model of status attainment referring to how complicated the actual work is on the job.

 

 

Answers to Self Test

Answer Keys

43

PSY 228 Social Psychology

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