Which of the following was a primary cause of the breakdown in relations between American Indians and the British colonists?

Cotton is the fabric of civilization. It has built up peoples, and has riven them apart. It has brought to the world vast and permanent wealth. It has enlisted the vision of statesmen, the genius of inventors, the courage of pioneers, the forcefulness of manufacturers, the initiative of merchants and shipbuilders, and the patient toil of many millions. A whole library could be written on the economic aspects of cotton alone. It could be told in detail, how and why the domination of the field of its manufacture passed from India to Spain, to Holland, and finally to England, which now shares it chiefly with the United States. The interdependence of nations which it has brought about has been the subject of numerous books and articles. Nor is the history of the inventions which have made possible to-day’s great production of cotton fabrics less impressive. From the unnamed Hindu genius of pre-Alexandrian days, through Arkwright and Eli Whitney, down to Jacquard and Northrop, the tale of cotton manufacture is a series of romances and tragedies, any one of which would be a story worth telling in detail. Yet, here is a work that is by no means finished. Great inventors who will apply their genius to the improvement of cotton growing and manufacture are still to be born.”—From The Fabric of Civilization, 1919

The expansion of cotton farming in the South during the early 1800s was a driving force behind the
a. abandonment of livestock in preference for more farming land
b. decrease in indentured laborers in favor of slave labor
c. railroad expansions of the 19th century
d.technological innovations in textile and manufacturing

Which of the following is an example of how the Constitution addressed a flaw of the Articles of Confederation?
It gave ultimate authority to the state governments so as to prevent any kind of central tyranny.
It divided the nations into regions that would each have a central authority over a group of states.
It enabled the national government to collect a small income tax in order to fund the military.
It created three branches of government to provide for not only making but also enforcing laws.

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“Art. 3. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.”—From the Northwest Ordinance, 1787

Why did the United States enact the Northwest Ordinance, with regard specifically to admitting new states in the 1780s?
To relinquish rights to the Mississippi River to Spain
To manage and support westward migration and the resulting land claims
To surrender forts in the Appalachian mountains to Britain
To enforce a proclamation forbidding further trans-Appalachian settlement

What was the main effect of the grandfather clauses and literacy tests put in place in the South at the end of the 19th century?
African American voters were disenfranchised.
The Republican Party maintained its dominance.
Emancipated slaves were forced to work on plantations.
Poor people were excluded from the political system.

What was the main reason Commodore Perry was sent to open trade negotiations with Japan?
The United States needed ports for their ships to refuel on the route to China.
The United States was looking for a new market in which to sell cotton.
Japan had industrial goods that the United States wanted to import.
Japan had previously offered to join a military alliance with the United States.

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“From the fact that the Indians are barbarians it does not necessarily follow that they are incapable of government and have to be ruled by others, except to be taught about the Catholic faith and to be admitted to the holy sacraments. They are not ignorant, inhuman, or bestial. Rather, long before they had heard the word Spaniard they had properly organized states, wisely ordered by excellent laws, religion, and custom. They cultivated friendship and, bound together in common fellowship, lived in populous cities in which they wisely administered the affairs of both peace and war justly and equitably, truly governed by laws that at very many points surpass ours … Yet even if we were to grant that this race has no keenness of mind or artistic ability, certainly they are not, in consequence, obliged to submit themselves to those who are more intelligent and to adopt their ways, so that, if they refuse, they may be subdued by having war waged against them and be enslaved … We are bound by natural law to embrace virtue … No one, however, is punished for being bad unless he is guilty of rebellion. Where the Catholic faith has been preached in a Christian manner as it ought to be, all men are bound by natural law to accept it, yet no one is forced to accept the faith of Christ.”—Bartolomé de las Casas, from In Defense of the Indians, c.1550

How do the views expressed in the excerpt about American Indians compare with those of the U.S. government after the Civil War?
a. Both thought that American Indian labor should be used to economically benefit the country in possession of the land.
b. Las Casas’s views focused mostly on the economic potential of the American Indians, while the U.S. government wanted mostly to ensure that American Indians retained their tribal identities.
c. Both thought land should be taken from the American Indians, but the U.S. government wanted American Indians to be paid for it, while Las Casas did not.
d. Las Casas was primarily concerned with the spiritual improvement of the American Indians, while the U.S. government hoped to assimilate Indians so that they would behave more like white Americans.

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“All this is related by Americo, who adds that they returned to Spain and arrived at Cadiz with 222 Indian captives, where they were, according to him, very joyfully received, and where they sold all the slaves. Who will now ask whence they stole and carried off the 200 natives? This, as other things, is passed over in silence by Americo. It should be noted here by readers who know something of what belongs to right and natural justice, that although these natives are without faith, yet those with whom Americo went had neither just cause nor right to make war on the natives of those islands and to carry them off as slaves, without having received any injury from them, nor the slightest offence … What report, or what love would be spread about and sown among the natives, touching those Christians, when they left them wounded and desolate?”

—From The Letters of Amerigo Vespucci and Other Documents Illustrative of His Career
Translated by Clements R. Markham

In what way does the Vespucci excerpt predict the development of the encomienda system in New Spain?
It connects the moral debate on slavery with Counter-Reformation theory.
It connects the use of native people for free labor with religious conversion.
It suggests the conquest of the “New World” was morally unsustainable.
It undermines the necessary power of the explorers to shape colonial policy.

How did disease affect interaction between early colonizers and the American Indians?
Lack of immunity to American bacteria led many early European colony attempts to die out.
Early colonizers wiped out vast numbers of native peoples through the spread of viral diseases.
Populations on both sides were strengthened as survivors carried immunities from both groups.
Attempts to colonize slowed dramatically because of fear of disease and lack of medical care.

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“We have not sought to extend our territorial possessions by conquest, or our republican institutions over a reluctant people. It was the deliberate homage of each people to the great principle of our federative union. If we consider the extent of territory involved in the annexation, its prospective influence on America, the means by which it has been accomplished, springing purely from the choice of the people themselves to share the blessings of our union, the history of the world may be challenged to furnish a parallel … We may rejoice that the tranquil and pervading influence of the American principle of self-government was sufficient to defeat the purposes of British and French interference … From this example European Governments may learn how vain diplomatic arts and intrigues must ever prove upon this continent against that system of self-government which seems natural to our soil, and which will ever resist foreign interference.”—James Polk, from the State of the Union Address, December 2, 1845

The ideas expressed in Polk’s State of the Union Address most directly support the growing sense of acceptance of British and French interference in American politics
American fears over the consequences of the Louisiana Purchase
American superiority as it related to Manifest Destiny
justification for relinquishing British continental holdings

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“In a free government the security for civil rights must be the same as that for religious rights. It consists in the one case in the multiplicity of interests, and in the other in the multiplicity of sects. The degree of security in both cases will depend on the number of interests and sects; and this may be presumed to depend on the extent of country and number of people comprehended under the same government. This view of the subject must particularly recommend a proper federal system to all the sincere and considerate friends of republican government, since it shows that in exact proportion as the territory of the Union may be formed into more circumscribed Confederacies, or States oppressive combinations of a majority will be facilitated: the best security, under the republican forms, for the rights of every class of citizens, will be diminished: and consequently the stability and independence of some member of the government, the only other security, must be proportionately increased. Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit.”—James Madison, from The Federalist No. 51, 1788

What argument does Madison make against the Anti-Federalist perspective?
Attempting to protect the rights of every individual will ultimately undermine effective government.
The best protection for the rights of individuals is the creation of a strong permanent government.
Government is designed to protect the needs of the whole society and not those of individuals.
Dividing the administration and powers of government across states will threaten the nation.

Which of the following was a primary cause of the breakdown in relations between American Indians and the British colonists?
British refusal to consider intermarriage
Competition for food and other resources
American Indians’ open and early hostility
Distrust of foreign practices and religion

Which of the following documents was the basis for the first government of the United States?
Common Sense
The Declaration of Independence
The Articles of Confederation
The Constitution

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“We have not sought to extend our territorial possessions by conquest, or our republican institutions over a reluctant people. It was the deliberate homage of each people to the great principle of our federative union. If we consider the extent of territory involved in the annexation, its prospective influence on America, the means by which it has been accomplished, springing purely from the choice of the people themselves to share the blessings of our union, the history of the world may be challenged to furnish a parallel … We may rejoice that the tranquil and pervading influence of the American principle of self-government was sufficient to defeat the purposes of British and French interference … From this example European Governments may learn how vain diplomatic arts and intrigues must ever prove upon this continent against that system of self-government which seems natural to our soil, and which will ever resist foreign interference.”—James Polk, from the State of the Union Address, December 2, 1845

After this State of the Union Address, the statement that the annexation of Texas was born of a “choice of the people themselves to share the blessings of our union” was
countered by devastating conflicts with Hispanics and American Indians
embraced and set the tone for further peaceful North American expansion
reviled as a spin of political rhetoric to distract from the imperialistic spread of the republic
upheld as a model for the idea and implementation of Manifest Destiny

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.”—From the Emancipation Proclamation, 1863

How did the issuing of this document change the nature of the Civil War?
It prompted several states to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy.
It abolished slavery and ensured freedom for millions of African Americans.
It altered the Union’s purpose from restoring the nation to ending slavery.
It had little effect on either side since it was issued so close to the end of the war.

Question refers to the excerpt below.

“The denouement has been happy: and I confess I look to this duplication of area for the extending a government so free and economical as ours, as a great achievement to the mass of happiness which is to ensue. Whether we remain in one confederacy, or form into Atlantic and Mississippi confederacies, I believe not very important to the happiness of either part. Those of the western confederacy will be as much our children and descendants as those of the eastern, and I feel myself as much identified with that country, in future time, as with this: and did I now foresee a separation at some future day, yet I should feel the duty and the desire to promote the western interests as zealously as the eastern, doing all the good for both portions of our future family which should fall within my power.”—Thomas Jefferson, from Letter IX.—To Doctor Priestley, January 29, 1804

Jefferson’s letter failed to consider which of the following debates?
Whether to abolish or expand slavery
How to handle Spanish acquisitions in the West
Whether to increase income taxes to support the new territories
How to restructure Congress

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